World Black Revolution (1966)

Max Stan­ford, Garvey’s Ghost, 1964.

The Sweeping World Black Revolution

All over Africa, Asia, South, Afro and Cen­tral Amer­i­ca a rev­o­lu­tion is haunt­ing and sweep­ing. The rul­ing cir­cles of U.S. impe­ri­al­ism and its lack­eys (Europe, Sovi­et Union, etc.), have unit­ed in a “white unit­ed front” in order to try and stop this rev­o­lu­tion of non-white peo­ples in fear of being swept out of pow­er and of los­ing con­trol of their dom­i­na­tion of the world.

The Unit­ed States is leader of this counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary alliance of: Britain, France, Ger­many, Sovi­et Union, Por­tu­gal, Bel­gium and the Euro­pean coun­tries. Though on the sur­face they appear dis-unit­ed, under­ground, behind closed doors, in secret con­fer­ences, the pact of their “White Holy Alliance” is “nev­er let the Black Rev­o­lu­tion suc­ceed.”

The Euro­pean pow­ers have unit­ed against every rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black inter­na­tion­al­ist leader and move­ment that has emerged among the have nots ; some of whom are Mar­cus Gar­vey, Nkrumah, Mao Tse Tung, Robert Williams and Mal­colm X. These Euro­pean pow­ers led by U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism, includ­ing the so-called Euro­pean Unit­ed States rad­i­cals (lib­er­als, social­ists, com­mu­nists) real­ize that the suc­cess of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion would mean the end of the Euro­pean rule of the world. The inter­na­tion­al uni­fi­ca­tion, mobi­liza­tion and orga­ni­za­tion of Asia, Africa, South, Cen­tral and Black Amer­i­ca (non-white major­i­ty of the world) is what they fear the most. Their tac­tics have been that of divide and rule in order to stop this from hap­pen­ing.

Some things result from the facts:

In order for the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion to be suc­cess­ful, all non-white peo­ples must unite to destroy the exist­ing white pow­ers.

Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists must begin to pre­pare for [a] final show­down with the white impe­ri­al­ist oppres­sors and must begin to orga­nize for a World Black Rev­o­lu­tion which will cre­ate a “New World” which they will rule and mas­ter.

I. The Principal Contradiction in the World and the Line of the Revolutionary Black Internationalists

“The prob­lem of the Twen­ti­eth Cen­tu­ry is the prob­lem of the col­or line.”1

“The con­tra­dic­tion between the rev­o­lu­tion­ary peo­ples of Asia, Africa and Latin Amer­i­ca and the impe­ri­al­ists head­ed by the Unit­ed States is the prin­ci­pal con­tra­dic­tion in the con­tem­po­rary world. The devel­op­ment of this con­tra­dic­tion is pro­mot­ing the strug­gle of the peo­ple of the whole world against U.S. impe­ri­al­ism and its lack­eys.”2

Common grievances among Asian, African, South Afro, Central American and Caribbean peoples against the European-American:

For over 400 years the Euro­pean has attempt­ed to impose his will on dark peo­ples, the major­i­ty of the world. As his soci­ety devel­oped from the inter­na­tion­al trade of African men, women and chil­dren as chat­tel slaves, i.e., steal­ing fam­i­lies, tribes from their homes, the Euro­pean uproot­ed soci­ety in Africa and brought slav­ery to the “New World”; North, South, Cen­tral Amer­i­ca and the Caribbean.

The Euro­pean Bour­geoisie in order to paci­fy its own con­tra­dic­tion devel­oped the con­cept of racism, exploita­tion and enslave­ment on the basis of race; that enslaved peo­ple being con­sid­ered less than human beings. This was done in order to jus­ti­fy their inter­na­tion­al sys­tem of exploita­tion of man (by mankind). The sys­tem of cap­i­tal­ism which devel­oped a large extent from the slave trad­er, lat­er devel­oped into impe­ri­al­ism, capitalism’s high­est stage of devel­op­ment, impe­ri­al­ism devel­oped into neo-colo­nial­ism, the last stage of impe­ri­al­ism. The impe­ri­al­ist has spread the sys­tem of racism into Asia and has devel­oped an inter­na­tion­al racial caste of which he (Euro­pean) is on top – “White is right” – and has devel­oped an inter­na­tion­al cur­tain based on col­or, lim­it­ing the areas of peace­ful com­mu­ni­ca­tion between the haves and the have nots. The dark major­i­ty of the world have come to find that their com­mon ene­my is/has been, the Euro­pean and his younger wild broth­er the white Amer­i­can. The dark major­i­ty have found the Euro­pean, espe­cial­ly the white Amer­i­can, unjust and unfit for world lead­er­ship and have found them to be bar­bar­ians to man and an out­law to uni­ver­sal har­mo­ny and peace. The Euro­pean and Euro­pean-Amer­i­can by their own crimes and injus­tices to man have set the stage for their own destruc­tion.

The prin­ci­pal con­tra­dic­tion in the world is between impe­ri­al­ism, par­tic­u­lar­ly U.S. impe­ri­al­ism, and the colonies, between the haves and the have nots. This con­tra­dic­tion man­i­fests on both a class and caste basis. In the present sit­u­a­tion, caste pre­dom­i­nates the ques­tion of class in that the exploita­tion of the have nots though ini­tial­ly per­pe­trat­ed on class lines as of the present, main­tains itself on caste (racial lines). Class thus becomes the sec­ondary and not the pri­ma­ry man­i­fes­ta­tion of the prin­ci­pal con­tra­dic­tion. It there­fore becomes per­ti­nent to ana­lyze the present state and to draw a clear line for the future. In order for this con­tra­dic­tion to be resolved, impe­ri­al­ism, cap­i­tal­ism and all that main­tains the sys­tems of exploita­tion must be destroyed by the have nots. The destruc­tion of these sys­tems will mean the end of class exploita­tion and will also mean the end of caste (racial) exploita­tion. The Euro­pean forces have con­sol­i­dat­ed along caste lines, and main­tain their exploita­tion on the basis of racial lines (caste); the world rev­o­lu­tion will be a racial (caste) war between the haves, impe­ri­al­ists and the have nots – major­i­ty of the world – while at the same time being a class war between the Black Under­class and the White Over­class to elim­i­nate the class sys­tem – cap­i­tal­ism. The line of rev­o­lu­tion­ary black inter­na­tion­al­ists is that the Black Under­class is the van­guard of the world rev­o­lu­tion, lead­er­ship and rulers of the “New World.”

II. The European ruling class, working class and the Black Underclass

The Euro­pean rul­ing class (bour­geoisie) duped the Euro­pean mid­dle-class (pet­ty bour­geoisie) and the Euro­pean work­ing class (pro­le­tari­at) into believ­ing that it was to their inter­ests to oppress peo­ples in the colonies (Asia, Africa, South and Cen­tral Amer­i­ca) and enslave Africans in Amer­i­ca in the, form of chat­tel slav­ery. They dial this so that the Euro­pean mid­dle class and Euro­pean work­ing class would not see the class con­tra­dic­tions and antag­o­nisms in Europe and to keep them from unit­ing with I the have nots and seize pow­er. The Euro­pean work­ing class chose and con­tin­ues to choose to reap the prof­its of super exploita­tion of the colonies. The Euro­pean work­ing class is not deal­ing with,the caste con­tra­dic­tions of the world, became a tool of impe­ri­al­ism, revi­sion­ism and oth­er counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces.

Dr. Du Bois fore­saw and cor­rect­ly ana­lyzed the prin­ci­pal con­tra­dic­tion of the Twen­ti­eth Cen­tu­ry in 1902 in the Souls of Black Folk. These caste con­tra­dic­tions exist­ed even at the time Marx and Engels were writ­ing the Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo. Marx­ism being pri­mar­i­ly a Euro­pean move­ment did not have to deal “intel­lec­tu­al­ly” with the caste con­tra­dic­tion, until after the Octo­ber rev­o­lu­tion.

Lenin, the archi­tect of the Octo­ber Bol­she­vik Russ­ian Rev­o­lu­tion, ana­lyzed that the Euro­pean working.class by being racist had allowed the bour­geoisie to con­sol­i­date cap­i­tal­ism inter­na­tion­al­ly to devel­op “Impe­ri­al­ism.” Lenin then devel­oped the the­sis that the prin­ci­pal con­tra­dic­tion was between oppress­ing nations and oppressed nations. Lenin plead for the Euro­pean work­ing class to ral­ly to the sup­port of the oppressed nations before the avenues of com­mu­ni­ca­tion and work­ing class uni­ty broke down. This he described vivid­ly in “The Right of Nations to Self Deter­mi­na­tion.” Lenin’s only hope for the Euro­pean work­ing class was for them to ral­ly in sup­port of the Octo­ber Russ­ian Rev­o­lu­tion.3

But even Lenin could not deal thor­ough­ly with the caste con­tra­dic­tions for at the Sec­ond Con­gress of the Com­mu­nist Inter­na­tion­al held in Moscow in 1920, M.N. Roy of India chal­lenged and debat­ed Lenin on the future world rev­o­lu­tion. Roy’s posi­tion was that the ini­tia­tive for fur­ther world rev­o­lu­tions and the world rev­o­lu­tion was going to come from Asia and the Euro­pean proletariat’s momen­tum; while Lenin, a Euro­pean, did not fore­see the hope­less­ness of the Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at. As far as he was con­cerned, Roy had tak­en the mat­ter a lit­tle too far. Lenin stat­ed that he saw and rec­og­nized the emer­gence of nation­al bour­geois rev­o­lu­tions in the colonies (Asia, Africa, etc.), but did not see where they would become the van­guard of the world rev­o­lu­tion.4

Roy and Lenin debat­ed for hours to a draw. Although the Sec­ond Con­gress of the Com­mu­nist (Third) Inter­na­tion­al approved and adopt­ed both Roy’s and Lenin’s the­ses, Roy’s were sel­dom referred to and lit­tle heard of. His­to­ry has proven Lenin wrong. The ini­tia­tive came from Asia. Stal­in like­wise fol­lowed in Lenin’s shoes of remain­ing indif­fer­ent to the caste con­tra­dic­tions. While Stal­in wrote “On the Nation­al Ques­tion,” he manip­u­lat­ed the Amer­i­can Com­mu­nist Par­ty to use the Afro-Amer­i­can Lib­er­a­tion strug­gle to ben­e­fit Russ­ian Euro­pean Nation­al­ism. First, the Amer­i­can Com­mu­nist Par­ty fought, sub­vert­ed, and helped crush Mar­cus Gar­vey who refused to be con­trolled by them (the Amer­i­can racist com­mu­nists). By help­ing to crush Gar­vey, they helped no one but the Euro­pean Bour­geoisie because Gar­vey threat­ened their con­trol over Africa and oth­er colonies. The Amer­i­can Com­mu­nist Par­ty lat­er dropped the “Negro strug­gle” to form a unit­ed front against fas­cism. They urged every­one to sup­port Roo­sevelt (orders com­ing from Stal­in who had a pact with Roo­sevelt after Hitler attacked Rus­sia). The Com­mu­nist Par­ty even opposed A. Philip Randolph’s pro­posed March on Wash­ing­ton in 1941 against job dis­crim­i­na­tion against Blacks in fed­er­al gov­ern­ment-con­tract­ed work. Time and time again the Amer­i­can Com­mu­nist Par­ty sold the African-Amer­i­can out for the “Moth­er Coun­try.”5

George Padmore’s dis­il­lu­sion­ment with Stal­in came while Pad­more was head of “Negro Affairs” in Moscow and saw Stalin’s oppor­tunis­tic maneu­vers with the African Lib­er­a­tion Move­ment in order to “save the Moth­er Coun­try.” Also in Chi­na, Stal­in made dis­as­trous blun­ders which almost cost the lives of the entire Chi­nese Com­mu­nist move­ment. M.N. Roy, who had been sent to Chi­na by Stal­in to assess the sit­u­a­tion was soon to dis­agree with Stal­in over his Chi­na pol­i­cy and had to flee the Com­mu­nist move­ment for fear of his life. All Black (Asia, Africa and South, Cen­tral and Afro-Amer­i­ca) move­ments were set back and suf­fered many loss­es at the expense of Russ­ian nation­al­ism. Pad­more attempt­ed to deal with the caste con­tra­dic­tions by orga­niz­ing the Fifth Pan African Con­gress held in 1945 in Man­ches­ter, Eng­land. Padnore’s expe­ri­ences were sim­i­lar to the expe­ri­ences that oth­er broth­ers suf­fered with the Euro­pean Com­mu­nists, par­tic­u­lar­ly between the French Com­mu­nists and African and Asian rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies.6

The caste con­tra­dic­tions began to man­i­fest more when the Chi­nese Com­mu­nists came to pow­er in Chi­na. Long strug­gling against the social chau­vin­ism (racism) of the Sovi­et Union, the emer­gence of Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Chi­na began to polar­ize caste and class con­tra­dic­tions with­in the world, in both the bour­geoisie impe­ri­al­ist camp and also in the Euro­pean bour­geois com­mu­nist-social­ist camp.

The mod­ern Euro­pean Com­mu­nist-Social­ist soci­ety that has sprout­ed from the weak spots in Euro­pean cap­i­tal­ist soci­ety, though elim­i­nat­ing major class antag­o­nisms have not done away with caste (racial) antag­o­nisms. It has but estab­lished new con­di­tions of oppres­sion; new forms of strug­gle in place of the old ones.

The fail­ure of the Euro­pean Com­mu­nist-Social­ist camp and its van­guard Lenin, Stal­in and Trot­sky to deal com­pre­hen­sive­ly with the inter­na­tion­al racial caste formed by cap­i­tal­ism in its high­est stage – impe­ri­al­ism – has helped con­sol­i­date the chau­vin­is­tic cul­tur­al aspects of cap­i­tal­ism in all parts of the west­ern world and has led to revi­sion­ism (or cop out) among the Euro­pean Com­mu­nist coun­tries. The Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at (work­ing class) has thus sold out to the west­ern bour­geoisie (impe­ri­al­ist-neo-colo­nial­ists).

The Historical Question Unite or Perish!

The present era presents an his­tor­i­cal ques­tion for the Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at – that is the Euro­pean must either unite with the Black Under­class (have nots), the vast major­i­ty of the world, or per­ish with the Euro­pean bour­geoisie and revi­sion­ist marx­ist lead­ers in the world rev­o­lu­tion.

Broth­er Lin Piao stat­ed in Long Live the People’s War:

Tak­ing the entire globe, if North Amer­i­ca and West­ern Europe can be called ‘the cities of the world, then Asia, Africa and Latin Amer­i­ca con­sti­tute “the rur­al areas of the world”… In a sense, the con­tem­po­rary world rev­o­lu­tion also presents a pic­ture of the encir­clement of cities, by the rur­al areas. In the final analy­sis, the whole cause of world rev­o­lu­tion hinges on the rev­o­lu­tion­ary strug­gles of the Asian, African and Latin Amer­i­can peo­ples who make up the over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of the world’s pop­u­la­tion.7

The International Caste System

An inter­na­tion­al caste sys­tem has been formed by capitalism’s advanced stages, colo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism. Frantz Fanon stat­ed in Wretched of the Earth: “When you exam­ine at close quar­ters the colo­nial con­text, it is evi­dent what parcels out the world is (to begin with) the fact of belong­ing to or not belong­ing to a giv­en race, a giv­en species. In the colonies the eco­nom­ic sub­struc­ture is also a super­struc­ture. The cause is the con­se­quence; you are rich because you are white, you are white because you are rich.”8 As a result the col­o­nized become a new class, “a thing – nig­ger, chink, spick” all lumped togeth­er. All become one Black Under­class oppressed by all of Euro­pean soci­ety, the bour­geoisie (mid­dle class) and the pro­le­tari­at (work­ing class) Though class antag­o­nisms or con­tra­dic­tions exist with­in the Black Under­class, between the Black (colo­nial) Bour­geoisie, mid­dle class;, Black Work­ing Class, peas­antry and unem­ployed they are sec­ondary to the caste antag­o­nisms or con­tra­dic­tions between the col­o­nized and the col­o­niz­er, the haves and the have nots.


Euro­pean Bour­geoisie

Euro­pean pet­ty-bour­geoisie

Euro­pean work­ing class


The Black Under­class

Black (colo­nial) bour­geoisie

pet­ty bour­geoisie

work­ing class, peas­antry

Rep­re­sents antag­o­nism, con­tra­dic­tion, and fric­tion

All of Euro­pean soci­ety becomes the Over­class or colo­nial over­seer, oppres­sor class. All of the Ban­dung, non-white peo­ples have been vic­tims of the sys­tem that has been formed by the Euro­pean, built on the con­cept of his racial supe­ri­or­i­ty, in order to jus­ti­fy his “minor­i­ty” rule of the world. This caste sys­tem has been estab­lished for a peri­od of four hun­dred years, and is embed­ded as a way of life in Euro­pean soci­ety and trans­plant­ed through­out the rest of the world. The essence of world rev­o­lu­tion being a total “Social Rev­o­lu­tion” is not just the elim­i­na­tion of the reac­tionary polit­i­cal and eco­nom­ic insti­tu­tions of the old order, but also the social and cul­tur­al insti­tu­tions of the old order. The inter­na­tion­al caste sys­tem pre­de­ter­mines all rela­tions between col­ored and Euro­pean, regard­less of class (eco­nom­ic and polit­i­cal) sta­tus or posi­tion. Class becomes inter­locked with caste (race), there­fore, in order for Ban­dung peo­ples to rev­o­lu­tion­ize the world, they must destroy the caste sys­tem, Euro­pean racial “cul­tur­al” supe­ri­or­i­ty, thus at the same,time destroy­ing the class sys­tem.

This means the destruc­tion of the exist­ing reac­tionary Euro­pean way of life and the sub­mis­sion of the Euro­pean to the rev­o­lu­tion­ary peo­ples – the Black Under­class of the world. This means that the Euro­pean will have to be rev­o­lu­tion­ized because he will wake up one morn­ing to find out that God is not white but Black, Jesus was a Black African orga­niz­ing oth­er Black Africans against Euro­pean invaders and oth­er Uncle Tom Africans, that the dev­il is white, that angel food cake is choco­late and devil’s food cake is vanil­la, if a white cat cross­es your path it is bad luck, that civ­i­liza­tion began in Africa. The true bar­bar­ians and sav­ages are the Euro­pean; can­ni­bal­ism was “a thing” for most Euro­peans at one time where they lived in caves with wolves, eat­ing raw meat and drink­ing blood from their dead one’s skulls. Yes, this is what the Euro­pean will have to wake up and face: his true “blue blood her­itage.” The ram­i­fi­ca­tions of the world rev­o­lu­tion have yet to be felt.

The cul­tur­al, caste antag­o­nisms in con­tem­po­rary world soci­ety as a whole are more and more split­ting up into two great hos­tile camps, into two class­es direct­ly fac­ing each oth­er: the white over­class (haves) and the Black Under­class (have-nots). Since…“In the final analy­sis, the whole cause of world rev­o­lu­tion hinges on the rev­o­lu­tion­ary strug­gles of the Asian, African, and Latin Amer­i­can peo­ples who make up the over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of the world’s population”…the world rev­o­lu­tion takes on a dif­fer­ent char­ac­ter. It takes on a caste char­ac­ter or nature of being large­ly a world “Black” rev­o­lu­tion that is pri­mar­i­ly of the Black Under­class. This World Black Rev­o­lu­tion is a new demo­c­ra­t­ic rev­o­lu­tion of the world’s major­i­ty ris­ing up, seiz­ing pow­er and destroy­ing the inter­na­tion­al caste sys­tem cre­at­ed by the oppres­sor, at the same time destroy­ing the foun­da­tions and sys­tem of cap­i­tal­ism, the class sys­tem. This stage is the first stage for the trans­for­ma­tion to a world com­mu­nal­ist soci­ety. This rev­o­lu­tion which is dif­fer­ent from all oth­ers, must be a rev­o­lu­tion against the inter­na­tion­al caste (Euro­pean-Amer­i­can racial social-chau­vin­ism) sys­tem, impe­ri­al­ism, cap­i­tal­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism, waged by the non-whites mass­es of the world under the lead­er­ship of the Black peas­antry work­ing class ele­ment of the Black Under­class. The World Black Rev­o­lu­tion embraces in its ranks all class­es with­in the Black Under­class for a final show­down with impe­ri­al­ism.

Economic Whitemail and the Soviet-U.S. Axis

Some­time ago the U.S. and some “oth­er pow­ers” decid­ed that to have a nuclear World War III would kill 700 to 800 mil­lion peo­ple, most of which would be Euro­peans and Amer­i­cans (white peo­ple)9 but that there would be plen­ty of black, yel­low, brown and red peo­ple left to “inher­it the earth.” These pow­ers that the major­i­ty of the world was col­ored and that a world rev­o­lu­tion would mean the dark major­i­ty would come to pow­er (Black Pow­er). The U.S. and the Sovi­et Union when they play the game of “close to con­fronta­tion” every now and then, real­ly try to hold back the world rev­o­lu­tion with their doc­trine of peace­ful co-exis­tence.

The great white pow­ers (Soviet-U.S. Axis) buy up the souls of small emerg­ing pre­vi­ous­ly col­o­nized coun­tries by giv­ing them eco­nom­ic aid with small strings attached. The strings are polit­i­cal where the col­o­nized nation must fol­low the axis polit­i­cal line. This is the worst form of neo­colo­nial­ism. Even so-called rev­o­lu­tion­ary coun­tries like Cuba must fol­low the Sovi­et line because its econ­o­my relies on Sovi­et trade. The Sovi­et - U.S. Axis uses “Eco­nom­ic Whitemail” to hold back the tide of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. In set­ting up this “colo­nial eco­nom­ic black­ade,” they are buy­ing up pre­vi­ous­ly rev­o­lu­tion­ary lead­ers in an attempt to set up an “inter­na­tion­al polit­i­cal black­ade” against the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and also to iso­late Chi­na, “the nation from the East,” their most feared ene­my.

III. World Revolutionary Initiative and Leadership in the Hands of the Black Underclass

M.N. Roy of India in the Sec­ond Con­gress of the Com­mu­nist Inter­na­tion­al held in Moscow in 1920 stat­ed that the pro­le­tari­at and rev­o­lu­tion­ary move­ment in Europe was depen­dent upon the course of the rev­o­lu­tion in Asia, if the West­ern Euro­pean work­ing class was going to cause a rev­o­lu­tion they would in essence do it in order to save their own skins. In stat­ing this, Roy in actu­al­i­ty repu­di­at­ed Marx’s the­o­ry that “the pro­le­tari­at alone is a real­ly rev­o­lu­tion­ary class.”10 Roy saw that the West­ern-Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at had ben­e­fit­ted from the super prof­it extract­ed from the colonies and semi-colonies and were not about to give it up. Lenin also saw this, but failed to see that the rev­o­lu­tion­ary ini­tia­tive in the world was not in the hands of the Euro­pean work­ing class but the Black Under­class. Trot­sky also failed to see this because he, like Lenin, thought the “per­ma­nent rev­o­lu­tion” was com­ing from Europe.

Lenin saw clear­ly what Marx, hav­ing died before Impe­ri­al­ism attained its zenith, was unable to fore­see; name­ly, the grad­ual cor­rup­tion of the Euro­pean Social­ist move­ments through “Bour­geoisi­fi­ca­tion.” The cap­i­tal­ist sys­tem, which Marx had so bril­liant­ly ana­lyzed, had, in Lenin’s life­time, reached out into the remotest cor­ners of the earth - into Asia and Africa – draw­ing the great con­ti­nents into its ten­ta­cles and squeez­ing super prof­its from the toil of hun­dreds of millions…Lenin’s the­sis was that West­ern Cap­i­tal­ism had become inter­na­tion­al; monop­o­lies had been estab­lished on a world scale and whole con­ti­nents and coun­tries, Africa, Chi­na, India, Indone­sia, Bur­ma, Indo-Chi­na, etc. had been reduced to colonies and eco­nom­ic depen­den­cies of Euro­pean nations. The finan­cial and mil­i­tary strength of the Great Pow­ers rest­ed upon the con­tin­ued exploita­tion of the col­ored peo­ples and the super prof­its derived from colo­nial spoila­tion enabled the rul­ing class­es of the West to cor­rupt the white work­ers of the metrop­o­lis and blunt their rev­o­lu­tion­ary ardor.

Hence, argued Lenin, the West­ern dom­i­na­tion of the world can only be bro­ken by stir­ring the col­ored colo­nial and semi-colo­nial peo­ples of Asia and Africa to achieve their nation­al inde­pen­dence. Accord­ing to Karl Marx, the pro­le­tar­i­an rev­o­lu­tion which was to ush­er in Com­mu­nism would occur first in the high­ly devel­oped coun­tries where there exist­ed the eco­nom­ic and social pre­req­ui­sites as well as an edu­cat­ed and cul­tured indus­tri­al work­ing class to form the first foun­da­tions of social­ism. After the Bol­she­vik Rev­o­lu­tion, Lenin, see­ing that the west­ern Euro­pean work­ers were in no hur­ry to per­form the his­toric role which Marx had assigned to them in his Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo, decid­ed to for­get about them and reach out to those who were still uncor­rupt­ed by cap­i­tal­ist reform and yearned to break the fet­ters of impe­ri­al­ist dom­i­na­tion.11

Lenin stat­ed in The Social­ist Rev­o­lu­tion and the Right of Nations to Self-Deter­mi­na­tion that

the pro­le­tari­at must demand free­dom of polit­i­cal seces­sion for the colonies and nations that are oppressed by its nation. Unless it does this, pro­le­tar­i­an inter­na­tion­al­ism will remain a mean­ing­less phrase; nei­ther mutu­al con­fi­dence nor class sol­i­dar­i­ty between the work­ers of the oppress­ing and oppressed nations will be pos­si­ble.12

Though Lenin even admit­ted that “Marx was think­ing main­ly of the inter­ests of the pro­le­tar­i­an class strug­gle in the advanced coun­tries” but could not see the incor­rect­ness in Marx’s the­sis on rev­o­lu­tion­ary ini­tia­tive and what made up the van­guard of the world rev­o­lu­tion. He, there­fore, could not under­stand that M. N. Roy was cor­rect on both the nation­al and inter­na­tion­al ques­tions.

Roy also cor­rect­ly ana­lyzed tac­tics to be used in the colo­nial rev­o­lu­tion when he devel­oped, the the­o­ry for rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies to only coop­er­ate with bour­geoisie nation­al­ist when nec­es­sary, pri­mar­i­ly in the ini­tial stages and with cau­tion, to devel­op work­ing class par­ties which would orga­nize work­ers and peas­ants and inspire them to rev­o­lu­tion “from below.” Lenin’s the­sis was of using tac­tics pri­mar­i­ly from below but the debat­ing over the issue was so great between him and Roy at the Sec­ond Con­gress of the Com­mu­nist Inter­na­tion­al that Lenin com­pro­mised and met Roy halfway, and the Con­gress adopt­ed a dual the­sis for the colo­nial sit­u­a­tion ; that of orga­niz­ing from above and below.13

Marx fore­saw that social­ist rev­o­lu­tions would occur in West­ern Europe in coun­tries where cap­i­tal­ism had devel­oped to a high lev­el and where the pro­le­tar­i­an was well orga­nized and strong. Instead, rev­o­lu­tions occurred in essen­tial­ly under­de­vel­oped coun­tries where cap­i­tal­ism was just devel­op­ing and where the pro­le­tari­at was basi­cal­ly unor­ga­nized and weak.

Under the present world sit­u­a­tion, the Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at is no longer a rev­o­lu­tion­ary class. The pro­le­tari­at, through the oppor­tunism of a Euro­pean labor aris­toc­ra­cy, have refused to unite with their nation’s colonies to demand their right of self-deter­mi­na­tion, have and still do oppose the lib­er­a­tion of them from the oppres­sor coun­try. In so doing, they are act­ing as the counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary van­guard for the West­ern bour­geoisie by sup­port­ing their regime’s for­eign and domes­tic poli­cies. So, as Lenin fore­saw but did not thor­ough­ly deal with, “Pro­le­tar­i­an Inter­na­tion­al­ism” has remained a mean­ing­less phrase and there is no mutu­al con­fi­dence nor class sol­i­dar­i­ty between the work­ers of the oppress­ing and oppressed nations. Pro­le­tar­i­an inter­na­tion­al­ism has been super­seded by Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ism (the uni­fi­ca­tion of peo­ples of Asia, Africa Afro, South and Cen­tral Amer­i­ca). The Black Under­class becomes the rev­o­lu­tion­ary class with­in the world with the Black work­ing class peas­ant ele­ment being its most rev­o­lu­tion­ary sec­tor. The Black Under­class can­not achieve true “nation­al lib­er­a­tion” or self-deter­mi­na­tion of their respec­tive col­o­nized coun­tries, except by abol­ish­ing the oppressor’s eco­nom­ic sys­tem of cap­i­tal­ism in its advanced stages known as colo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism through wag­ing people’s wars against the uni­ver­sal slave­mas­ter. (U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism).

No col­o­nized or semi-col­o­nized peo­ples will be free until all col­o­nized and semi-col­o­nized peo­ples are free. The Black Under­class will nev­er be able to total­ly lib­er­ate itself until Impe­ri­al­ism, Neo colo­nial­ism, par­tic­u­lar­ly U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism and all its sup­port­ers, are destroyed. The Black Under­class has noth­ing to secure and to for­ti­fy in the present deca­dent world, while the Euro­pean pro­le­tari­at does (the U.S.-European way of life, eco­nom­ic stan­dard of liv­ing). The Black Underclass’s mis­sion is to destroy all pre­vi­ous and present secu­ri­ties for, and insur­ances of, white bour­geois soci­ety.

His­to­ry shows us that the Euro­pean pro­le­tar­i­an move­ment was a Euro­pean nation­al­ist move­ment; its inter­ests being of the Euro­pean work­ing class basi­cal­ly in the dif­fer­ent Euro­pean coun­tries, there­by being a move­ment of the “minor­i­ty” in rela­tion to the vast major­i­ty of the world. The Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ist Move­ment is the move­ment of the Black Under­class (the vast major­i­ty of the world) orga­nized inde­pen­dent of the Euro­pean pro­le­tar­i­an move­ment and in the inter­est of the over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of the world’s pop­u­la­tion – the Asian, African, Afro-Amer­i­cans, South and Cen­tral Amer­i­can peo­ples.

In world soci­ety, the Black Under­class, being the low­est stra­tum, can­not achieve nation­al lib­er­a­tion, self-deter­mi­na­tion, Black Pow­er with­out the whole of U.S.-European bour­geois soci­ety being com­plete­ly destroyed. The first stage of the strug­gle for lib­er­a­tion of the black under­class against the white over­class is nation­al strug­gle. The black under­class must strug­gle against the par­tic­u­lar impe­ri­al­ist pow­er that is direct­ly oppress­ing it nation­al­ly, but it must be remem­bered that behind all impe­ri­al­ism today is U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism. There­fore, while wag­ing a war of lib­er­a­tion against its imme­di­ate oppres­sor, it must also wage war against U.S. impe­ri­al­ism inter­na­tion­al­ly.

Since the end of the sec­ond impe­ri­al­ist war, U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism has become the leader of world impe­ri­al­ism. As Lin Piao observes:

Like a vicious wolf, it is bul­ly­ing and enslav­ing var­i­ous peo­ples, plun­der­ing their wealth; encroach­ing upon their coun­tries’ sov­er­eign­ty and inter­fer­ing in their inter­nal affairs. It is the most rabid aggres­sor in known his­to­ry and the most fero­cious com­mon ene­my of the peo­ple of the world. Every peo­ple or coun­try in the world that wants rev­o­lu­tion, inde­pen­dence and peace can­not but direct the spear­head of its strug­gle against U.S. Imperialism…The U.S. Imperialist’s pol­i­cy of seek­ing world dom­i­na­tion makes it pos­si­ble for the peo­ple through­out the world to unite all the forces that can be unit­ed and form the broad­est pos­si­ble unit­ed front for a con­vey­ing attack on U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism…

Suc­cess­ful move­ments of the black under­class against the white over­class since the end of the sec­ond impe­ri­al­ist war have tak­en the form of “people’s war,” bet­ter known as gueril­la war. The nature of these people’s wars are pro­tract­ed wars that mobi­lize the mass of the black under­class to form “nation­al demo­c­ra­t­ic rev­o­lu­tions” to vio­lent­ly over­throw or throw out the oppres­sor. “The rev­o­lu­tion embraces in its ranks not only work­ers, peas­ants, and the urban pet­ty bour­geoisie, but also the nation­al bour­geoisie and oth­er patri­ot­ic and anti-impe­ri­al­ist democ­rats,”14 but is led by the black work­ing class-peas­ant ele­ment of the black under­class.

Marx stat­ed in the Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo that “every form of soci­ety has been based, as we have already seen, on the antag­o­nism of oppress­ing and oppressed class­es.”15 In today’s world soci­ety, the oppress­ing class is the white over­class and the oppressed is the black under­class; there­fore, the world rev­o­lu­tion­ary ini­tia­tive and lead­er­ship is in the hands of the black under­class

IV. Black Underclass and Revolutionary Black Internationalists:

What is the rela­tion­ship of Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists to the Black Under­class in their respec­tive coun­tries and as a whole? Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black inter­na­tion­al­ists are the van­guard of the Black Under­class. Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black inter­na­tion­al­ists’ loy­al­ty is with the mass of col­ored peo­ples – “the Black Under­class” – and their prin­ci­ples are derived from the con­cept of “from the mass­es to the mass­es.”

This means: take the ideas of the mass­es (scat­tered and unsys­tem­at­ic ideas) and con­cen­trate them (through study turn them into con­cen­trat­ed and sys­tem­at­ic ideas), then go to the mass­es and prop­a­gate and explain these ideas until the mass­es embrace them as their own, hold fast to them and trans­late them into action, and test the cor­rect­ness of these ideas in such action. Then once again con­cen­trate ideas from the mass­es and once again go to the mass­es so that the ideas are per­se­vered in and car­ried through. And so on, over and over again in an end­less spi­ral, with the ideas becom­ing more cor­rect, more vital and rich­er each time.16

Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black inter­na­tion­al­ists, rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ists con­stant­ly strug­gle through var­i­ous stages of their nation­al move­ments against colo­nial­ism, cap­i­tal­ism, impe­ri­al­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism but always empha­size that with­out the cor­rect inter­na­tion­al per­spec­tive, nation­al lib­er­a­tion move­ments can fall prey to neo-colo­nial­ism. Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists are the black “avant guards” of the black under­class in every coun­try: they act as cat­a­lysts, van­guard and the­o­ret­i­cal clear­ing house in nation­al rev­o­lu­tions. The imme­di­ate aim of black inter­na­tion­al­ists is the for­ma­tion of the black under­class into a pow­er­ful nation­al lib­er­a­tion move­ment, over­throw of colo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism, and neo-colo­nial­ism and the con­quest of world polit­i­cal pow­er by the black under­class. While black inter­na­tion­al­ists are at the same time rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ists in their own coun­tries, they under­stand that “the world is the black man’s land” and a world gov­ern­ment under the dic­ta­tor­ship or the black under­class is the ulti­mate solu­tion of the world black rev­o­lu­tion.17

The ques­tion of a dic­ta­tor­ship of the black under­class as opposed to the the­o­ry of a dic­ta­tor­ship of the pro­le­tari­at (the work­ing class) is an his­tor­i­cal ques­tion. To be a black inter­na­tion­al­ist is to admit the need for the dic­ta­tor­ship of the black under­class. The dic­ta­tor­ship of the black under­class is the cen­tral issue of the ide­o­log­i­cal dif­fer­ences between third world inter­na­tion­al­ists and reformists. The the­o­ry of the black under­class dic­ta­tor­ship is the only means capa­ble of putting an end to the uni­ver­sal slave­mas­ter, the white man’s evil, cru­el­ty and his exploit­ing nation­al­ists’ move­ments and their lead­ers. It is not enough to see the neces­si­ty of elim­i­nat­ing entire­ly the European’s rule, influ­ence and con­trol over the world by the estab­lish­ment of a dic­ta­tor­ship of the Black Under­class. This is what con­sti­tutes the most pro­found dif­fer­ence between Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists and oth­ers. This is the birth­stone on which real under­stand­ing and recog­ni­tion of rev­o­lu­tion­ary black inter­na­tion­al­ism is to be test­ed. The ques­tion of the dic­ta­tor­ship of the Black Under­class should occu­py a spe­cial place in Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ism because with­out the seizure of polit­i­cal pow­er, with­out the dic­ta­tor­ship of the Black Under­class, there can be no vic­to­ry for com­mu­nal­ism. The Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists’ the­o­ry of the estab­lish­ment of a soci­ety with­out caste (race) and exploita­tion would remain wish­ful think­ing if the Black Under­class and its Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Nation­al­ist Move­ments did not con­cen­trate their efforts on what is most deci­sive, the seizure of pow­er to reor­ga­nize soci­ety along com­mu­nal­ist lines.

V. The United Nations, a Scheme of the European-American Bourgeoisie to Hold Back the Tide of the World Black Revolution and Control the World:

The U.N. is a polit­i­cal game of chess which the West­ern Impe­ri­al­ist pow­ers must play in order to be suc­cess­ful in their neo-colo­nial­ist deal­ings with their for­mer colonies. By keep­ing a pseu­do-dia­logue with their for­mer colonies, the Impe­ri­al­ists hope to keep the have nots from see­ing the road to World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and hope through “dol­lar­ism” to re-col­o­nize them. Through trick­ery and psy­cho­log­i­cal war­fare, the Impe­ri­al­ists hope to “snow” the oppressed into believ­ing that they stand for “democ­ra­cy, peace and self-deter­mi­na­tion,” when in real­i­ty the Impe­ri­al­ists are attempt­ing to cre­ate a world fas­cist dic­ta­tor­ship built on the con­cept that “white is right,” are war­mon­ger­ing beasts and vio­late the U.N. Char­ter on Human Rights every­day. Through the U.N., the Impe­ri­al­ists and their part­ners, the Sovi­et Union, keep the oppressed on a ver­bal mer­ry-go-round and con­tin­ue to “snow” (con­fuse) them into think­ing that they can peace­ful­ly co-exist with their oppres­sors. The Impe­ri­al­ists, par­tic­u­lar­ly U.S. Impe­ri­al­ists, then use “dol­lar­ism” (neo-colo­nial­ism) to regain or gain con­trol of the “new emerg­ing nations.” The con­cept of peace­ful co-exis­tence allows for this. Peace­ful co-exis­tence allows for trade agree­ments, which means that the ene­my is not real­ly the ene­my any longer, but just a pow­er that you have some dis­agree­ments with. Fur­ther trade agree­ments, and a good snow job about peace, democ­ra­cy and self-deter­mi­na­tion in U.N. cir­cles and the new emerg­ing nation is under Impe­ri­al­ist eco­nom­ic con­trol (neo­colo­nial­ism) there­by being under Impe­ri­al­ist polit­i­cal con­trol. Thus, “Eco­nom­ic Whitemail’s” strong­hold is the Unit­ed Nations and its social cir­cles. Most deals, secrets, etc., are sunk in the U.N-social cir­cles where the C.I.A. and oth­er intel­li­gence agen­cies make good use of Euro­pean and white Amer­i­can women. Because the ambiva­lence of the new intel­li­gentsia is very high, these women.are able to make great progress for their boss­es and are able to con­vince many a mil­i­tant Ban­dung free­dom fight­er of the how’s and why’s of peace co-exis­tence: the valid­i­ty of West­ern polit­i­cal maneu­vers and eco­nom­ic trade with the West­ern pow­ers.

Peace­ful co-exis­tence says that two oppos­ing sys­tems can exist at the same time with­out going to war. It in essence says that the oppressed and the oppres­sor can live side-by-side. In real­i­ty, it is a the­o­ry of avoid­ing rev­o­lu­tion. It denies the oppressed the uni­ver­sal right to over­throw by vio­lent means, the oppres­sor. Rev­o­lu­tion and counter-rev­o­lu­tion can­not peace­ful­ly co-exist.

In the world today, Europe and the Unit­ed States are the counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces and Africa, Asia and South, Cen­tral and Afro-Amer­i­ca, the rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces. How can rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces sit at a con­fer­ence table with counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces and talk about peace and mak­ing the world anew? As Broth­er Mal­colm would say, “You are being chumped,” tricked by the mas­ter trick­ol­o­gist, the uni­ver­sal slave­mas­ter. Know­ing that the U.N. is noth­ing but a scheme, a trick, the oppressed must with­draw from the U.N. and form anoth­er Ban­dung con­fer­ence, mak­ing it the pol­i­cy-mak­ing body for“the vast major­i­ty of the world.

VI. So-called Revolutionary Propaganda:

The strug­gle in the world today is a bat­tle for men’s minds, for to con­trol men’s minds is to con­trol their actions and also to have some con­trol over their reac­tions to their actions.

Pro­pa­gan­da, there­fore, becomes an impor­tant instru­ment in the devel­op­ing world rev­o­lu­tion. The oppressed (Black Under­class) must be able to inter­pret what is truth and what is false­hood in pro­pa­gan­da; what is counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary and what is rev­o­lu­tion­ary pro­pa­gan­da. The worst kind of pro­pa­gan­da is that which on the sur­face pre­tends to be rev­o­lu­tion­ary, but in con­tent is counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary: the “wolf with a sheep’s face.”

The worst kind of counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary pro­pa­gan­da is prop­a­gat­ed from the Sovi­et Union, East­ern Europe and now even Cuba. This pet­ty bour­geois Com­mu­nist-Social­ist pro­pa­gan­da talks of peace­ful co-exis­tence between Com­mu­nist coun­tries and cap­i­tal­ist coun­tries; they dis­cuss peace­ful tran­si­tion from cap­i­tal­ism to Com­mu­nism. Can God (Allah) and the dev­il peace­ful­ly co-exist at the same time in either heav­en or hell? One has to rule and it would not be a non-vio­lent strug­gle to see who would rule either. The pro­pa­gan­da that dis­cuss­es any coop­er­a­tion with the beast is counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary, revi­sion­ist or Uncle Tomism, or what­ev­er you want to call it.

A rev­o­lu­tion is a polit­i­cal war in which the oppressed class or caste comes to pow­er using any means nec­es­sary. In that process, the oppres­sor class or caste is anni­hi­lat­ed in the process of elim­i­na­tion in the bring­ing in of a new social order. There is no hon­or­able sur­ren­der in a rev­o­lu­tion. That is reform. There is no peace­ful co-exis­tence in a rev­o­lu­tion between the oppressed and the oppres­sor. That is reform, an uncom­plet­ed rev­o­lu­tion. Peace­ful co-exis­tence means evo­lu­tion, not rev­o­lu­tion. The oppressed does not have the need for evo­lu­tion. This is real­i­ty. The oppressed need rev­o­lu­tion.

Marx said: “The­o­ry will always become real­i­ty among a peo­ple to such an extent as it meets the needs of the peo­ple.”18 Rev­o­lu­tion has become a real­i­ty among the oppressed because it meets our needs.

These counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary Com­mu­nists tell the Black Under­class to for­get about the caste (racial) con­tra­dic­tions between the West­ern (White) world and the East­ern (Black) world. They tell the Black Under­class to sub­mit Black Nation­al­ist-Inter­na­tion­al­ist feel­ings (instincts) for work­ing class pro­le­tar­i­an uni­ty and Marx­ist-Lenin­ist sci­ence-reli­gion. They tell the Black Under­class to for­get all the atroc­i­ties com­mit­ted against them and above all nev­er to think of or dis­cuss repa­ra­tion or ret­ri­bu­tion for “all-white peo­ple are not the same.” They say “Black and white, unite and fight for a worker’s world.” They tell the Black Under­class that the white work­ing class is not to blame for slav­ery, colo­nial­ism, semi-colo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism. They say it was the Euro­pean and Amer­i­can bour­geoisie who was respon­si­ble.

The con­ver­sa­tion between the Black Under­class and a white so-called rev­o­lu­tion­ary usu­al­ly goes as such:

The Black Under­class:

“But what about the work­ing class now?”

White so-called rev­o­lu­tion­ary:

“Oh, er, well, con­di­tions aren’t ripe for a world rev­o­lu­tion, but when they are, the work­ing class in Europe and Amer­i­ca being the most orga­nized and devel­oped will become the van­guard of the world rev­o­lu­tion and of course form a dic­ta­tor­ship of the pro­le­tari­at (work­ing class) over the new world.” (End of con­ver­sa­tion.)

The Black Under­class must “beware of Greeks (Euro­peans and Amer­i­cans) bear­ing gifts” because they have “tricks” up their sleeves. Yes, peace­ful co-exis­tence, whether it be termed Marx­ism-Lenin­ism or any oth­er sci­ence-reli­gion is noth­ing but a “psy­cho­log­i­cal trick” to keep the Black Under­class from see­ing that they are the van­guard of :the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and they are at war with the white world be it Cap­i­tal­ist, Social­ist or Com­mu­nist. Real­i­ty makes it that way.

This does not mean that the Black Under­class will use the bourgeoisie’s con­cept of racism and just indis­crim­i­nate­ly set about to kill all whites, but rather means that it (Black Under­class) will unite on the basis of being exploit­ed racial­ly in order to destroy the inter­na­tion­al caste and class sys­tems. This means the Black Under­class will destroy all those who oppose the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion regard­less of race, col­or, creed, religion,science or any oth­er thing. But let it be known that any and all who oppose the world rev­o­lu­tion will be destroyed (anni­hi­lat­ed) in the process of the world rev­o­lu­tion because in oppos­ing it, they become counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary and counter-rev­o­lu­tion can­not peace­ful­ly co-exist at any time; one must win. His­to­ry makes it nec­es­sary for the oppressed to make rev­o­lu­tion win.

Petty Bourgeois Communism

In Euro­pean coun­tries, Rus­sia and Cuba where rev­o­lu­tions have occurred, a new class of pet­ty bour­geois has formed. Call­ing them­selves Marx­ist-Lenin­ists and pur­port­ing to be Com­mu­nists, they seemed afraid to car­ry the world rev­o­lu­tion to the end. The Com­mu­nis­tic bour­geoisie want all the advan­tages of their “nation­al rev­o­lu­tions” with­out the strug­gle, dan­gers and sac­ri­fices nec­es­sar­i­ly result­ing from the con­tin­u­ing inter­na­tion­al world rev­o­lu­tion. They do not want the Black Under­class to “rock the boat or upset the apple cart.”19 “They desire the exist­ing state of soci­ety minus its rev­o­lu­tion­ary and dis­in­te­grat­ing ele­ments.”20 They wish for a world rev­o­lu­tion with­out the Black Under­class. The Com­mu­nist bour­geoisie con­ceives of a world in which they will be the rulers and of a world rev­o­lu­tion in which ret­ri­bu­tion by the Black Under­class will be nul­li­fied.

VII. Universal Harmony Can Only Be Achieved Through World Black Revolution and the Establishment of a Black World Revolutionary Government:

The inter­na­tion­al caste sys­tem has pro­duced two nations inter­na­tion­al­ly – the Black nation (oppressed nation) and the white nation (the oppress­ing nation). There are two types of nation­al­ism. One type sup­press­es or oppress­es, i.e., a nation or par­tic­u­lar group reaps prof­its or advances mate­ri­al­ly at the expense, exploita­tion, slav­ery or tor­ture of anoth­er group or nation. In this nation and in the world today, this nation­al­ism is con­sid­ered “white nation­al­ism” or the coop­er­a­tion of the white west­ern nations to keep the new emerg­ing oppressed world in bondage. This is cap­i­tal­ism or reac­tionary nation­al­ism. The oth­er type of nation­al­ism is to lib­er­ate or free from exploita­tion. That is the bind­ing force of a nation or par­tic­u­lar group to free itself from a group or nation that is sup­press­ing or oppress­ing it. In this coun­try and in the world, this is con­sid­ered black nation­al­ism or rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ism.

We can see that black nation­al­ism is the oppo­site of white nation­al­ism – black nation­al­ism being rev­o­lu­tion­ary and white being reac­tionary. We see also that nation­al­ism is real­ly inter­na­tion­al­ism today.21

Broth­er Mal­colm in his Mes­sage to the Grass­roots said, “All the rev­o­lu­tions going on in Asia and Africa today are based on black nationalism…If you’re afraid of black nation­al­ism, you’re afraid of rev­o­lu­tion and if you love rev­o­lu­tion, you love black nation­al­ism.”22

We can see that the inter­na­tion­al per­spec­tive in the world today is built on nation­al­is­tic inter­ests, divid­ing the world into two inter­na­tion­al nations: the white nation and the black nation.

The present world scene is one of chaos and tur­moil caused by white nation­al­ism (white pow­er). The vast major­i­ty of the world, the black under­class, know that they can only achieve peace and har­mo­ny through a world black rev­o­lu­tion that demol­ish­es white pow­er. Only then can the world be in “uni­ver­sal” har­mo­ny. Black inter­na­tion­al­ism will then pre­vail. The need for nation­al bound­aries and bar­ri­ers will be elim­i­nat­ed. Nation­al sov­er­eign­ty though still respect­ed, the need for nation­al­ism in its aggres­sive form, will be elim­i­nat­ed. With white counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ism destroyed and com­plete­ly anni­hi­lat­ed, a “Unit­ed World People’s Repub­lic,” a new lev­el of social order, can be cre­at­ed. The world black rev­o­lu­tion brings with it a new world soci­ety, a new world. It also brings with it the con­cept of uni­ver­sal law and order.

The present world scene is one of chaos and tur­moil caused by white nation­al­ism (white pow­er). The vast major­i­ty of the world, the black under­class, know that they can only achieve peace and har­mo­ny through a world black rev­o­lu­tion that demol­ish­es white pow­er. Only then can the world be in “uni­ver­sal” har­mo­ny. Black inter­na­tion­al­ism will then pre­vail. The need for nation­al bound­aries and bar­ri­ers will be elim­i­nat­ed. Nation­al sov­er­eign­ty though still respect­ed, the need for nation­al­ism in its aggres­sive form, will be elim­i­nat­ed. With white counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ism destroyed and com­plete­ly anni­hi­lat­ed, a “Unit­ed World People’s Repub­lic,” a new lev­el of social order, can be cre­at­ed. The world black rev­o­lu­tion brings with it a new world soci­ety, a new world. It also brings with it the con­cept of uni­ver­sal law and order.

VIII. The World Black Revolution and the African-American

“The African-Amer­i­can liv­ing in the citadel of world impe­ri­al­ism (the U.S.A.) will have a strate­gic role in the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion, the Black inter­na­tion­al and the for­ma­tion of a world gov­ern­ment ruled by a dic­ta­tor­ship of the Black Under­class.”23

Why is such the case? Because: “The arch ene­my of the colored,peoples of the world now stands at the point where it can bring a stale­mate to all nation­al lib­er­a­tion strug­gles by using brute force.”24

Mao Tse-Tung stat­ed in On the People’s Demo­c­ra­t­ic Dic­ta­tor­ship: “In the epoch in which Impe­ri­al­ism exists, it is impos­si­ble for a gen­uine people’s rev­o­lu­tion to win vic­to­ry in any coun­try with­out var­i­ous forms of help from the inter­na­tion­al rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces, and even if vic­to­ry were won, it could not be con­sol­i­dat­ed.”25

“More­so than any time, the Afro-Amer­i­can is in a strate­gic role as far as world pol­i­tics is con­cerned, being that he is the anti-the­sis and inter­nal colony of the citadel of West­ern Impe­ri­al­ism.”26 Since West­ern Impe­ri­al­ism can bring nation­al lib­er­a­tion strug­gle to a tem­po­rary stale­mate, the Con­go, Ghana, South Viet­nam, Domini­can Repub­lic, the Afro-Amer­i­can becomes a more impor­tant fac­tor to the uni­ver­sal lib­er­a­tion of col­ored peo­ples of the world. Since Amer­i­ca is the citadel of Impe­ri­al­ism and it can tem­porar­i­ly bring the world rev­o­lu­tion to a stale­mate, it is to the advan­tage of all rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies to come to the aid of the Afro-Amer­i­can lib­er­a­tion strug­gle with polit­i­cal, eco­nom­ic and phys­i­cal sup­port in the course of a rev­o­lu­tion­ary war inside the racist U.S.A.27

U.S.A.’s Domestic Colonialism

The Amer­i­can Negro shares with colo­nial peo­ples many of the socio-eco­nom­ic fac­tors which form the mate­r­i­al basis for present-day rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ism. Like the peo­ples of the under­de­vel­oped coun­tries, the Negro suf­fers in vary­ing degree from hunger, illit­er­a­cy, dis­ease, ties to the land, urban and semi-urban slums, out­right star­va­tion, and the psy­cho­log­i­cal reac­tions to being ruled over by oth­ers not of his kind. He expe­ri­ences the tyran­ny imposed upon the lives of those who inhab­it under­de­vel­oped countries…From the begin­ning, the Amer­i­can Negro,has exist­ed as a colo­nial being. His enslave­ment coin­cid­ed with the colo­nial expan­sion of Euro­pean Pow­ers and was noth­ing move or lead than a con­di­tion of domes­tic colo­nial­ism. Instead of the Unit­ed States estab­lish­ing a colo­nial empire in Africa, it brought the colo­nial sys­tem home and installed it in the South­ern states. When the Civ­il War broke up the slave sys­tem and the Negro was eman­ci­pat­ed, he gained only par­tial free­dom. Eman­ci­pa­tion ele­vat­ed him only to the posi­tion of a semi-depen­dent man, not to that of an equal or inde­pen­dent being.28

The most sig­nif­i­cant devel­op­ments in the African-Amer­i­can strug­gle for nation­al lib­er­a­tion has been the inter­na­tion­al­iz­ing of its intel­li­gentsia and broad mass­es. The three main per­son­al­i­ties that have con­tributed to this have been the Hon­or­able Eli­jah Muham­mad, Leader of the Nation­al of Islam, Robert F. Williams, leader in exile of the Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Action Move­ment (RAM), and the late Mal­colm X.

Robert F. Williams in Feb­ru­ary of 1964 advanced the the­o­ry of “urban guer­ril­la war­fare.” Since that time, mass erup­tions have occurred in over 100 U.S. cities where Afro-Amer­i­cans have fought gal­lant­ly against supe­ri­or mil­i­tary forces. The most notice­able rebel­lion has been the Watts, Los Ange­les, Cal­i­for­nia rebel­lion of 1965. These upris­ings take on a dif­fer­ent char­ac­ter in the present world scene for they become an inte­gral part of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. Williams, orga­ni­za­tion RAM, posi­tion is that the Afro-Amer­i­can is the van­guard of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion, being America’s “Achilles heel.” RAM states that the Afro-Amer­i­can will be “the sin­gle spark that starts the prairie fire” in the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. Mal­colm X in 1964 stat­ed, “…any kind of racial explo­sion that takes place in this coun­try today…is not a racial explo­sion that can be con­fined to the shores of Amer­i­ca. It is a racial explo­sion that can ignite the pow­der keg that exists all over the plan­et we call earth.”29

Each year more rebel­lions occur in Amer­i­can cities and each year they obtain more sup­port among the Black mass­es, are linked more with orga­nized resis­tance and tied more to rev­o­lu­tion­ary slo­gans, and pro­grams. In 1966, many of the erup­tions came under the psy­cho­log­i­cal influence,of the slo­gan of Black Pow­er raised by Stoke­ly Carmichael, Chair­man of SNCC (Stu­dent Non-Vio­lent Coor­di­nat­ing Com­mit­tee). There is a dialec­ti­cal pro­gres­sion aris­ing and devel­op­ing as a result of these rebel­lions. It is a rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al con­scious­ness (Black Nation­al­ism) which sees itself linked to the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. The rebel­lions are “cur­tain rais­ers” to a devel­op­ing Afro-Amer­i­can people’s war.

People’s war inevitably meets with many dif­fi­cul­ties, with ups and downs and set­backs in the course of its devel­op­ments, but no force can alter its gen­er­al trend towards inevitable triumph…To despise the ene­my strate­gi­cal­ly is an ele­men­tary require­ment for a rev­o­lu­tion­ary. With­out the courage to despise the ene­my and with­out dar­ing to win, it will sim­ply impos­si­ble to make rev­o­lu­tion and wage a people’s war, let alone to achieve victory…It is also very impor­tant for rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies to take full account of the ene­my tac­ti­cal­ly. It is like­wise impos­si­ble to win vic­to­ry in a people’s war with­out tak­ing full account of the ene­my tac­ti­cal­ly, and with­out exam­in­ing the con­crete con­di­tions, with­out being pru­dent and giv­ing great atten­tion to the study of the art of strug­gle and with­out adopt­ing appro­pri­ate forms of strug­gle in the con­crete prac­tice of the rev­o­lu­tion in each coun­try and with regard to each con­crete prob­lem of strug­gle.30

Muham­mad Ahmad (Max Stan­ford) at the 1963 NAACP nation­al con­ven­tion in Chica­go. Source: Akinyele Omowale Umo­ja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resis­tance in the Mis­sis­sip­pi Free­dom Move­ment (New York: NYU Press, 2013), 91.

RAM and the Concept of Urban Guerrilla Warfare

Williams’s group, RAM, is the only known nation­al Afro-Amer­i­can orga­ni­za­tion that does not attempt to project itself pub­licly (using the oppressor’s mass media). Williams states that the con­cept of urban guer­ril­la war­fare that is tak­ing place inside of the U.S.

**is a new con­cept of revolution…The con­cept is light­ing cam­paigns con­duct­ed in high­ly sen­si­tive urban com­mu­ni­ties and spread­ing to the farm areas. The old method of guer­ril­la war­fare, as car­ried out from the hills and coun­try­side, would be inef­fec­tive in a pow­er­ful coun­try like the U.S.A. Any such force would be wiped out in an hour. The new con­cept is to hud­dle as close to the ene­my as pos­si­ble so as to neu­tral­ize his mod­ern and fierce weapons. The new con­cept cre­ates con­di­tions that involve or not. It sus­tains a state of con­fu­sion and destruc­tion of prop­er­ty. It dis­lo­cates help­less, sprawl­ing octo­pus. Dur­ing the hours of day spo­radic riot­ing takes place and mas­sive snip­ing. Night brings all-out war­fare, orga­nized fight­ing and unlim­it­ed ter­ror against the oppres­sor and his forces[.]31

Urban guer­ril­la war­fare is an ever-grow­ing con­cept as a solu­tion to the end of oppres­sion among the Black mass­es in Amer­i­ca. As racists con­tin­ue to attack Afro-Amer­i­cans, they will resort more and more to guer­ril­la war­fare. This will bring a con­fronta­tion between the Black and white races in Amer­i­ca…

When mas­sive vio­lence comes, the U.S.A. will become a bed­lam of con­fu­sion and chaos. The fac­to­ry work­ers will be afraid to ven­ture out on the streets to report to their jobs. The tele­phone work­ers and radio work­ers will be afraid to report. All trans­porta­tion will come to a com­plete stand­still. Stores will be destroyed and loot­ed. Prop­er­ty will be dam­aged and expen­sive build­ings will be reduced to ash­es. Essen­tial pipelines will be sev­ered and blown up and all man­ner of sab­o­tage will occur. Vio­lence and ter­ror will spread like a firestorm. A clash will occur inside the armed forces. At U.S. mil­i­tary bases around the world, local rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies will side with Afro-G.I.’s. Because of the vast area cov­ered by the holo­caust, U.S., forces will be spread too thin for effec­tive action. U.S. work­ers who are caught on their jobs will try to return home to pro­tect their fam­i­lies. Trucks and trains will not move the nec­es­sary sup­plies to the big urban cen­ters. The econ­o­my will fall into a state of chaos…32

The weapons of defense employed by Afro-Amer­i­can free­dom fight­ers must con­sist of a poor man’s arse­nal. Gaso­line fire bombs (Molo­tov Cock­tails), lye or acid bombs (made by inject­ing lye or acid in the met­al end of light bulbs) can be used exten­sive­ly. Dur­ing the night hours such weapons, thrown from rooftops, will make the streets impos­si­ble for racist cops to patrol. Hand grenades, bazookas, light mor­tars, rock­et launch­ers, machine guns, and ammu­ni­tion can be bought clan­des­tine­ly from ser­vice­men anx­ious to make a fast dol­lar. Free­dom fight­ers in mil­i­tary camps can be con­tact­ed to give instruc­tion on usage…Extensive sab­o­tage is pos­si­ble. Gas tanks on pub­lic vehi­cles can be chocked up with sand. Sug­ar is also high­ly effec­tive in gaso­line lines. Long nails dri­ven through boards and tacks with large heads are effec­tive to slow the move­ment of traf­fic on con­gest­ed roads at night. This can cause hav­oc on turn­pikes. Derail­ing of trains caus­es pan­ic.

Explo­sive booby,traps on police tele­phone box­es can be employed. High pow­ered sniper rifles are read­i­ly avail­able. Armor-pierc­ing bul­lets will pen­e­trate oil stor­age tanks from a dis­tance. Phos­pho­rous match­es (kitchen match­es) placed in air con­di­tion­ing sys­tems will cause delayed explo­sions which will destroy expen­sive build­ings. Flame throw­ers can be man­u­fac­tured at home. Com­bat expe­ri­enced ex-ser­vice­men can eas­i­ly solve that prob­lem…33

…In the process of rev­o­lu­tion, the mass com­mu­ni­ca­tions sys­tem should be the first to go. Why? Because the enemy’s pop­u­lace and sup­port­ers rely on the mass com­mu­ni­ca­tions sys­tem to know how to relate to events. By destroy­ing the oppressor’s com­mu­ni­ca­tion sys­tem the rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al­ist cre­ates a vac­u­um in the oppressor’s appa­ra­tus and iso­lates him from his machin­ery. Also, it sets the oppres­sor to a great dis­ad­van­tage because he will have to attempt to rebuild his sys­tem in the mid­dle of a bat­tle­field. The elec­tri­cal plants should be the first tar­get, then radio and t.v. sta­tions, news­pa­per build­ings, etc. In urban areas trans­porta­tion lines would be the num­ber two tar­get – sab­o­tage of sub­way sys­tems, derail­ing of trol­leys or trains, etc. The destruc­tion of air­ports, espe­cial­ly the tow­er, dents the beasts’ trans­porta­tion sys­tem; tele­phone lines should be out. In rur­al areas the roads lead­ing in and out should be set up for ambush and traps for trucks, etc. In urban areas, gaso­line across high­ways, road- blocks hold up traf­fic for hours. With Wall Street, Madi­son Avenue and half of the com­plex in Wash­ing­ton blown to bits, the oppres­sor will have to func­tion under wartime plans. The destruc­tion of prop­er­ty (the con­cept of pri­vate prop­er­ty being the basis of the sys­tem) would be the chief con­cern of the rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­al lib­er­a­tion fight­ers. The demo­li­tion of indus­try would come after com­mu­ni­ca­tion and trans­porta­tion. The destruc­tion of steel plants, auto plants (the Detroit com­plex), chem­i­cal plants, oil fields and plants would divide the ener­gies of the oppres­sor. The com­plex out­side the cities like New York, Detroit, Chicago,Buffalo, N.Y., Lans­ing, Michi­gan, Philadel­phia, Cleve­land, etc., are con­ve­nient for rev­o­lu­tion­ary nation­aI­ists. The destruc­tion of such com­plex­es could be achieved by sta­tion­ary mor­tars or mor­tars from an auto­mo­bile. The mayor’s areas should also be com­plete­ly demol­ished. This keeps the low­er elite sec­tion of the cap­i­tal­ist rul­ing class iso­lat­ed in the sub­urbs for days with­out com­mu­ni­ca­tion with the out­side world. Bombs on trains would stop the com­muter sys­tem entire­ly, occa­sion­al ter­ror raids in the “super elite” sec­tions killing impor­tant exec­u­tives would cre­ate chaos in the oppressor’s iso­lat­ed com­mu­ni­ties, hold­ing, main­tain­ing, and sus­tain­ing it. If psy­cho­log­i­cal war­fare is used with phys­i­cal, then the oppressor’s forces and sup­port­ers will be put at con­sid­er­able dis­ad­van­tages. We can see through phase one – destruc­tion of com­mu­ni­ca­tions sys­tem, destruc­tion of trans­porta­tion sys­tem, destruc­tion of impor­tant prop­er­ty of the oppres­sors (Wall St., Madi­son Ave., etc.), indus­tri­al com­plex­es, steel, auto, iron, chem­i­cal, oil, gas indus­tries, etc…Birmingham, Alaba­ma is the main indus­tri­al com­plex in the South. Being that the social, eco­nom­ic and polit­i­cal struc­ture is divid­ed into two dif­fer­ent cat­e­gories, our par­ti­san war of nation­al lib­er­a­tion must have a dual front. The South is a rur­al area, but because of com­mu­ni­ca­tion, ter­rain (basi­cal­ly flat) and trans­porta­tion (high­ways) it takes on a semi-urban char­ac­ter. The North is high­ly indus­tri­al­ized being urban, almost super-urban, on the East Coast. The dual front of our forces would be a semi-urban cam­paign in the South and an urban cam­paign in the North. The strug­gle in the North would be to wreck the oppressor’s polit­i­cal and eco­nom­ic appa­ra­tus – gov­ern­ment build­ings, assas­si­na­tion of gov­ern­ment offi­cials, state and city, police machin­ery, army, etc., busi­ness exec­u­tives and busi­ness build­ings. Strate­gic raids in cer­tain sub­urbs at night, blow­ing up exec­u­tives’ homes would be total dis­lo­ca­tion of major cities and will be the type of activ­i­ty of the North­ern cam­paign. While in the South there will be semi-urban guer­ril­la war­fare with more empha­sis on occu­py­ing (lib­er­at­ing) cer­tain areas, estab­lish­ing people’s gov­ern­ments and wag­ing cam­paigns against the ene­my. This type of war­fare would take place with­in the Black Belt area – Louisiana, Mis­sis­sip­pi, Geor­gia and South Car­oli­na. In this area, Black peo­ple con­sti­tute near­ly the major­i­ty and live in an area that extends from the Atlantic Coast to the Gulf of Mex­i­co. Par­ti­san war­fare and the estab­lish­ment of people’s lib­er­a­tion bases could cut the oppressor’s forces in half. Blacks con­sti­tute at least 45% of the pop­u­la­tion of Louisiana, 59% in Mis­sis­sip­pi, 45% in Alaba­ma, 40% in Geor­gia and 55% in South Car­oli­na. The rev­o­lu­tion would prob­a­bly spread from the North­ern cities to South­ern cities, then to South­ern rur­al areas, then the ini­tia­tive would fall on the rur­al areas defeat­ing the ene­my in small cam­paigns while lib­er­at­ing the com­mu­ni­ty. The South­ern front would shift quick­ly from guer­ril­la to mobile war­fare. At this time the oppres­sor would be forced to call in the Nation­al Guard and the array of bat­tle forces would be divid­ed because of inter­nal dis­cre­tion due to the race issue. The Nation­al Guard and Army would be called in to crush mobile war­fare in the rur­al areas because it would be the most advanced form of guer­ril­la war­fare. At this time, guer­ril­la units in urban areas could engage the ene­my in “mass ambush” while the ene­my is prepar­ing to mobi­lize against the South­ern front. The elite of the mobile guer­ril­la South­ern forces could wage an encir­clement offen­sive on one of the major South­ern work cen­ters. At the same time the North­ern guer­ril­la could wage a sub­ur­ban offen­sive throw­ing the North­ern mil­i­tary appa­ra­tus far into elite Amer­i­ca, then the South­ern mobile guer­ril­la could close the encir­clement, extend­ing the war in a pro­tract­ed man­ner split­ting the ene­my forces in tow. The occu­py­ing of cities by Black com­mu­ni­ties would be basi­cal­ly in the South where there are a great num­ber of Black peo­ple both with­in and out of the city. The play of move­ment would devel­op sab­o­tage with­in a South­ern city with mass riot (far areas), tak­ing over plan­ta­tions, etc…34

Orga­ni­za­tion would require many facets. Groups ded­i­cat­ed to mil­i­tant demon­stra­tions would have to apply con­stant pres­sure to the pow­er struc­ture, cre­ate chaos and con­fu­sion and force the oppres­sor to unmask his ugly face before the world by react­ing even more bru­tal­ly and indis­crim­i­nate­ly against Con­sti­tu­tion­al forces. This would expose the true nature of the pow­er struc­ture and inspire greater resis­tance to it.

Armed defense guards would have to be formed through­out the land. These groups would be orga­nized with­in the con­fines of the law and when pos­si­ble become sport­ing rifle clubs affil­i­at­ed with the Nation­al Rifle Asso­ci­a­tion. They would func­tion only as defense units to safe­guard life, limb and prop­er­ty in the ghet­to com­mu­ni­ties. Some form of cen­tral direc­tion would be nec­es­sary. A tight­ly orga­nized and well-dis­ci­plined under­ground guer­ril­la force would also have to be formed to per­form a more aggres­sive mis­sion. It would have to be clan­des­tine­ly orga­nized and well-versed in explo­sives. Its mis­sion would be retal­i­a­tion and a force used to pin down and dis­perse con­cen­trat­ed fas­cist pow­er. It would pre­vent the pow­er struc­ture from rush­ing rein­force­ments to encir­cle and crush oth­er defense groups engaged in bat­tle against ter­ror­ist forces by snip­ing, bomb­ing bridges, boo­by trap­ping and sab­o­tag­ing high­ways. A wel­fare corps would have to be orga­nized to build morale, raise funds, pro­mote legal defense and take charge of the gen­er­al wel­fare of the fight­ing forces and their fam­i­lies. Many of the mem­bers of the Wel­fare Orga­ni­za­tion front would not under­stand its total func­tion. They would be recruit­ed on a human­i­tar­i­an basis.

The most aggres­sive and irre­press­ible arm of the over­all orga­ni­za­tion would be the fire teams. They would work in com­plete secre­cy and would be total­ly divorced in the orga­ni­za­tion­al sense from the main bod­ies of defense and oth­er forces. They would enjoy com­plete auton­o­my. The group’s only tan­gi­ble loy­al­ty to them would be in times of dis­tress. Their legal aid in court defense would be ren­dered by Afro-Amer­i­cans giv­ing legal aid to vic­tims of kan­ga­roo court sys­tems, as is com­mon­ly known where Black peo­ple stand no chance of obtain­ing jus­tice. This would be sim­i­lar to but more vig­or­ous and mil­i­tant than the NAACP’s role. The fire teams’ mis­sion would be sab­o­tage. Thou­sands of these groups would be orga­nized through­out racist Amer­i­ca. These teams would con­sist of from three to four per­sons. They would only know the mem­bers of their imme­di­ate team. They would not iden­ti­fy with the civ­il rights move­ment. They would appear to be apa­thet­ic and even Uncle Toms. They would some­times mas­quer­ade as super-patri­ots and be more than will­ing, in a decep­tive way, to coop­er­ate with the police. They would even infil­trate the police force and armed forces when pos­si­ble, and work in the homes of offi­cials as domes­tics. There would be no offi­cial meet­ings and dis­cus­sions, only emer­gency calls and sud­den mis­sions.

The mis­sion of these thou­sands of active fire teams would be set­ting strate­gic fires. They could ren­der America’s cities and coun­try­side impo­tent. They could trav­el from city-to-city plac­ing light­ed can­dles cov­ered by large paper bags in America’s for­est, and have time to be far removed from the scene by the time the light­ed can­dle burned to the dried leaves. While unspar­ing­ly set­ting the torch to every­thing that would burn in the cities, and while con­cen­trat­ing on urban guer­ril­la war­fare, the rur­al coun­try­side would not be neglect­ed. Aside from the dev­as­tat­ing dam­age that could be vis­it­ed upon the coun­try­side, such a mis­sion could serve a twofold pur­pose. It would also divert ene­my forces from the urban cen­ters. State forces would be forced to spread their ranks and would not be able to sus­tain mas­sive troop con­cen­tra­tions in a sin­gle com­mu­ni­ty. The heat and smoke gen­er­at­ed from the fires would ren­der some of the high­ways impass­able to repres­sive troop rein­force­ments. The rur­al coun­try­side cov­ers vast areas and would require exhaus­tive man­pow­er, equip­ment and secu­ri­ty forces. Amer­i­ca can­not afford to allow its rich tim­ber resources and crops go up in smoke. The fire teams rov­ing in auto­mo­biles would find unguard­ed rur­al objec­tives even more acces­si­ble. A few teams could start miles and miles of fires from one city to anoth­er. The psy­cho­log­i­cal impact would be tremen­dous. By day the bil­low­ing smoke would reflect red­dish flames that would elic­it pan­ic and a feel­ing of impend­ing doom. Oper­at­ing in teams of two’s or three’s, one free­dom fight­er could pour gaso­line or lighter flu­id from small flasks into pub­lic waste paper bas­kets, anoth­er could lat­er enter and toss a light­ed cig­a­rette in the same con­tain­er. Near clos­ing time, kitchen match­es could be placed in the air con­di­tion­ing sys­tems of indus­tri­al and pub­lic build­ings. The prop­er­ty of racists would be des­ig­nat­ed as pri­or­i­ty objec­tives. Through this method, the racist oppres­sors could be reduced to pover­ty in a short span of time. These fire teams could also go on pre-dawn mis­sions just before the morn­ing crush for work. Their objec­tive would be to spread tacks fit­ted with wire bases to insure their upright posi­tion when thrown from a mov­ing auto­mo­bile in heav­i­ly trav­elled tun­nels and free­ways. Pure hav­oc would ensue. Sug­ar or sand in gas tanks could be used to knock out the engines or pub­lic vehi­cles. Dur­ing police inva­sions of the ghet­to, lye and acid bombs could be thrown from rooftops. Many forms of boo­by traps could be uti­lized.35

In order to unite the Black com­mu­ni­ty, rev­o­lu­tion­ary Afro-Amer­i­can orga­ni­za­tions would have to be unit­ed into a Black Lib­er­a­tion Front. This is rev­o­lu­tion­ary action. A Black Gen­er­al Strike to stop the oppressor’s sys­tem would have to be called in order to throw chaos into the oppressor’s econ­o­my and dis­turb his social sys­tem. When all the Black ser­vants are no longer there or can­not be trust­ed for fear they may poi­son, maim or mur­der, the ene­my will be faced with a social cri­sis. The Black Gen­er­al Strike will cause com­plete social dis­lo­ca­tion with the Amer­i­can racist sys­tem. Youth, espe­cial­ly those in gangs would have to be orga­nized into a polit­i­cal Black Lib­er­a­tion Army. This lib­er­a­tion army would become Black America’s reg­u­lar guer­ril­la army that would become the “shock force” of lib­er­a­tion. All forms of rev­o­lu­tion­ary order would have to be estab­lished to keep supe­ri­or com­mu­ni­ty orga­ni­za­tion with­in the lib­er­a­tion forces’ ranks. A rev­o­lu­tion­ary Afro-Amer­i­can gov­ern­ment would be estab­lished to gov­ern the lib­er­at­ed areas. In non-lib­er­at­ed areas, it would exist in the form of insti­tut­ing rev­o­lu­tion­ary jus­tice. Orga­ni­za­tion would have to be struc­tured on the cadre lev­el…

A cadre orga­ni­za­tion can­not be made up of just enthu­si­as­tic and around peo­ple. Its essen­tial core must be cold, sober indi­vid­u­als who are ready to accept dis­ci­pline and who rec­og­nize the absolute neces­si­ty of a strong lead­er­ship which can orga­nize and project a strat­e­gy of action to mobi­lize the con­scious and not so con­scious mass­es around their griev­ances for a life and death strug­gle against those in pow­er. Such a cadre must be able to con­tin­ue the rev­o­lu­tion­ary strug­gle despite the set­backs that are inevitable in every seri­ous strug­gle because the mem­bers of the cadre feel that it is only through the rev­o­lu­tion that their own future is assured.

At the same time that it rec­og­nizes the inevitabil­i­ty of set­backs, such an orga­ni­za­tion must build itself con­scious­ly upon a per­spec­tive of vic­to­ry. This is par­tic­u­lar­ly nec­es­sary in the Unit­ed States where the idea of defeat of the Black man has been so sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly root­ed into the Black peo­ple them­selves that a ten­den­cy to self-destruc­tion or mar­tyr­dom lurk uncon­scious­ly with­in the orga­ni­za­tion unless it is sys­tem­at­i­cal­ly root­ed out of every mem­ber, leader, and sup­port­er. The move­ment for Black Pow­er can­not afford to lose oth­er Mal­colms, oth­er Emmett Tills, oth­er Medgar Evers­es, and it must build the kind of orga­ni­za­tion which has the strength and dis­ci­pline to assure that there will be no more of these.

Nor can such an orga­ni­za­tion build itself on the counter-revolution’s mis­takes or abus­es of the mass­es as the civ­il rights move­ment has done. Rather it must seri­ous­ly plot every step of its course – when to act, when to retreat, when to seize upon an issue or a mis­take by the rul­ing pow­er and when not to.

With­in such a cadre there must be units able to match every type of unit that the counter-rev­o­lu­tion has at its dis­pos­al, able not only to pit them­selves against these but to defend them. Colo­nial­ism, whether in Asia, Africa, Latin Amer­i­ca, or inside the Unit­ed States, was estab­lished by the gun and is main­tained by the gun. But it has also been able to hold itself togeth­er because it had skilled, dis­ci­plined col­o­niz­ers and admin­is­tra­tors well versed in the art of rul­ing and able to make the deci­sions insep­a­ra­ble from rule.36

Each year riot­ing, as a result of police bru­tal­i­ty and oppres­sion becomes more exten­sive and fero­cious. We can nei­ther pray nor hope our way out of this dif­fi­cult sit­u­a­tion. We must defend our­selves. We must fight to win.

We must also con­sid­er the imme­di­ate neces­si­ty of effec­tive self-defense and resis­tance to racist ter­ror. Dur­ing times of mas­sive riot­ing, too many of our peo­ple are forced to fight armed cops and troops with bare hands and stones. Cops and troops must be dis­armed and their weapons turned against oth­er cops to obtain weapons of defense. Tanks and armored cars must be knocked out with molo­tov cock­tails and cap­tured when pos­si­ble. Bazookas and mor­tars must be tak­en from troops and nation­al guard armories to pre­vent heavy con­cen­tra­tion of troops and inva­sion by over­whelm­ing force. The Min­ute­men, Con­fed­er­ate Under­ground and oth­er ter­ror­ist groups are arm­ing and train­ing with U.S. Army gear such as bazookas, mor­tars, hand grenades, machine guns and gas masks. Sub-machine guns are even being man­u­fac­tured in small shops con­trolled by these fas­cist groups. These pri­vate arse­nals must be locat­ed and raid­ed for weapons and stor­age tanks and nat­ur­al gas lines could be fired through delayed meth­ods. The oppres­sor must be forced to pay heav­i­ly eco­nom­i­cal­ly for his police bru­tal­i­ty, pro­grams, racist court frame-ups and white suprema­cy ter­ror.37

With­out mass com­mu­ni­ca­tions and rapid trans­porta­tion, this sys­tem is through. The mil­lion­aires who con­trol this coun­try would be iso­lat­ed from their flunkies who do their dirty work. When war breaks out in this coun­try, if the action is direct­ed toward tak­ing over insti­tu­tions of pow­er and “com­plete anni­hi­la­tion” of the racist cap­i­tal­ist oli­garchy, then the Black Rev­o­lu­tion will be suc­cess­ful. Guns, tanks and police will mean noth­ing. The Armed Forces will be in chaos, for the strug­gle of Black Rev­o­lu­tion will be direct­ed against the racist, Impe­ri­al­ist white Amer­i­can gov­ern­ment. It will be a war of the forces of the Black Lib­er­a­tion Front against the ultra-right coali­tion.

Black men and women in the Armed Forces will defect and come over to join the Black Lib­er­a­tion Forces. Whites who claim they want to help the rev­o­lu­tion will be sent into the white com­mu­ni­ties to divide them, fight the fas­cists and frus­trate the efforts of the counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary forces. Chaos will be every­where and with the break­down of mass com­mu­ni­ca­tions, mutiny will occur in great num­bers in all facets of the oppressor’s gov­ern­ment. The stock mar­ket will fall; Wall Street will stop func­tion­ing; Wash­ing­ton, D.C. will be torn apart by riots. Offi­cials every­where will run – run for their lives. The George Lin­coln Rock­e­fellers, Kennedys, Van­der­bilts, Hunts, John­sons, Wal­laces, Bar­netts, etc., will be the first to go. The rev­o­lu­tion will “strike by night and spare none.” Mass riots will occur in the day with the Afro-Amer­i­cans bat­tling for human sur­vival. Thou­sands of our peo­ple will get shot down, but thou­sands more will be there to fight on. The Black Rev­o­lu­tion will use sab­o­tage in the cities, knock­ing out the elec­tri­cal pow­er first, then trans­porta­tion and guer­ril­la war­fare in the coun­try­side in the South. With the cities pow­er­less, the oppres­sor will be help­less[.]38

This racist Impe­ri­al­ist oppres­sor will not be brought to his knees, sim­ply because of the fight­ing abil­i­ty and mil­i­tary pow­er of Black Free­dom Fight­ers and their allies inside the U.S. but because of the cre­ation of eco­nom­ic, chaot­ic con­di­tions, total dis­or­ga­ni­za­tion, frus­tra­tion of his essen­tial and ultra vital organs of pro­duc­tion and adverse con­di­tions cre­at­ed by the world-wide lib­er­a­tion strug­gle. Such a for­mi­da­ble ene­my will fall prey to the new con­cept of rev­o­lu­tion because of his ultra-mod­ern and auto­mat­ed soci­ety and the lack of psy­cho­log­i­cal con­di­tion­ing of his forces. Our peo­ple have already been con­di­tioned by almost 400 years of vio­lence, ter­ror and hunger[.]39

With the white Amer­i­can rul­ing class wiped off the face of this plan­et and the remain­ing reac­tionary forces suf­fer­ing even­tu­al defeat, the rev­o­lu­tion­ary Afro-Amer­i­can gov­ern­ment will call on the help of oth­er rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies and rev­o­lu­tion­ary gov­ern­ments to help restore order and to ful­fill the ulti­mate objec­tives of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion.40

The Unit­ed States and their supporters…are inflict­ing oppres­sion, aggres­sion and intim­i­da­tion on the over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of the nation and peo­ples’ of the world. We are in the major­i­ty and they are in the minor­i­ty. At most, they make up less than 10% of the 3,000 mil­lion pop­u­la­tion of the world…with the sup­port of more than 90% of the peo­ple of the world, the Afro-Amer­i­can will be vic­to­ri­ous in their strug­gle. The evil sys­tem of colo­nial­ism and impe­ri­al­ism grew up along with the enslave­ment of Africans and it will sure­ly come to its end with the thor­ough eman­ci­pa­tion of the Black peo­ple.41

IX. Revolutionary Solution Dictatorship of the World by the Black Underclass through World Black Revolution:

Today, we live at the end of the world of peo­ple who have ruled the Black man and his var­i­ous col­ors between Black and white for the last 6,000 years…The old world must be removed to make way for the new world. There is a uni­ver­sal strug­gle being waged by the old world against the begin­ning of the new world.42

The strug­gle of non-white peoples…is geared, by force, towards break­ing both the eco­nom­ic and psy­cho­log­i­cal bounds to which the white race has con­strict­ed them. It is a strug­gle in which the pri­ma­ry ele­ments con­sti­tute a refusal to remain where they are told they “belong,” and an effort towards the estab­lish­ment of those val­ues and ref­er­ences in the con­text of which they can estab­lish an iden­ti­ty which is con­sis­tent with their par­tic­u­lar his­tor­i­cal expe­ri­ence and their entire cul­tur­al background…such an atti­tude on their part is con­sid­ered noth­ing less than sub­ver­sion.43

The phe­nom­e­non of racism is not, as West­ern “thinkers” would-have us believe, either a “sick­ness of the mind” or a prod­uct of cer­tain eco­nom­ic con­di­tions. This is the most con­ve­nient atti­tude for whites to adopt, since it implies a process of self-exon­er­a­tion (a Pila­tus atti­tude) which says: If it is a sick­ness, then I had not con­tract­ed it con­scious­ly; if it is a prod­uct of eco­nom­ic cir­cum­stances which took place long ago, then I had noth­ing to do with it. Yet, the truth is quite dif­fer­ent (regard­less of whether accept­ed or not by those impli­cat­ed) since racism is a prod­uct of West­ern thought, West­ern civ­i­liza­tion and West­ern val­ues.44

The phe­nom­e­non of racism is noth­ing else but a dynam­ic part of the West­ern Weltan­schau­ung. The need to assim­i­late all cul­tures and to prove all dif­fer­ent non-white cul­tures infe­ri­or has prompt­ed the sys­tem­at­ic pil­lage and destruc­tion of the lat­ter in Asia, Africa and South America…As Karl Marx him­self stat­ed – sure­ly ignor­ing that the soci­ety of which he, him­self was a prod­uct would rep­re­sent the dialec­ti­cal oppo­site of soci­eties he had not tak­en into account – old orders of soci­ety nev­er give in to new ones with­out a fierce strug­gle. Marx’s ver­sion of the strug­gle between an under­priv­i­leged pro­le­tari­at and a priv­i­leged bour­geoisie begins to take place, not on a nation­al scale as he pre­dict­ed, but on a world lev­el, since West­ern soci­eties, because of their exploita­tion and pil­lage of oth­ers, con­sti­tute today a world bour­geoisie, while its anti­thet­i­cal oppo­site is found in the non-West­ern peo­ples ·and nations which have suf­fered for cen­turies. Thus, Marx’s class strug­gle is to be played out on a world scale. To con­tend that the con­flict can be avoid­ed, which is a mat­ter of eva­sive con­ve­nience, or to try to avoid it by the only way which it could be avoid­ed (i.e. the accep­tance of assim­i­la­tion: cul­tur­al assas­si­na­tion) implies for the lat­ter the per­pet­u­a­tion of this hege­mo­ny and thus the accep­tance of an indef­i­nite peri­od of sub­or­di­na­tion (neo-colo­nial­ism).45

The Black Under­class has only one alter­na­tive to free itself of coIo­nial­ism, impe­ri­al­ism; cap­i­tal­ism and neo-colo­nial­ism; that is to com­plete­ly destroy West­ern (bour­geois) civ­i­liza­tion (the cities of the world) through a World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and estab­lish­ing a Rev­o­lu­tion­ary World Black Dic­ta­tor­ship can bring about the end of exploita­tion of man by mankind and the new rev­o­lu­tion­ary world be cre­at­ed. This dic­ta­tor­ship is a must in order that the world be recon­struct­ed along rev­o­lu­tion­ary lines. lnher­ent in West­ern civ­i­liza­tion and cul­ture is racism, there­by being counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary. In order for man to live in peace, all forms of counter-rev­o­lu­tion must be purged from the earth. There­fore, a rev­o­lu­tion­ary world dic­ta­tor­ship must be estab­lished to ensure this. In a democ­ra­cy, counter-rev­o­lu­tion is allowed to exist; in fact democ­ra­cy is counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary. Who invent­ed democ­ra­cy?

Democ­ra­cy has been used for so long to describe so many dif­fer­ent sys­tems that is only a source of con­fu­sion for rev­o­lu­tion­ists. The cap­i­tal­ists use it, the Com­mu­nists use it, social­ists use it, lib­er­als use it, extrem­ists use it, fas­cists use it, racists use it. It makes no dif­fer­ence what eco­nom­ic sys­tem is involved, what polit­i­cal objec­tives are at stake, nor what meth­ods are being employed. The U.S. is in South Viet­nam fight­ing for democ­ra­cy; it seeks to over­throw Cas­tro in the name of democ­ra­cy. Wal­lace is in Alaba­ma fight­ing for democ­ra­cy – and Gold­wa­ter is all over Amer­i­ca.

The South Africans are uphold­ing democ­ra­cy in South Africa. It makes no dif­fer­ence that the U.S. would nev­er per­mit the Africans to vote on what kind of gov­ern­ment they want. So long has democ­ra­cy been used to obscure and evade issues that the real ques­tions of “how,” “what” or “where” to under­stand a sys­tem or to resolve any cru­cial issue can no longer be faced.

This con­fu­sion and evasion,are built into the con­cept of democ­ra­cy. The Greeks invent­ed the word to describe equal­i­ty in the polit­i­cal are­na. But Greek democ­ra­cy did not give polit­i­cal equal­i­ty to the slaves. It gave no slave the right or pow­er to free him­self from slav­ery. Instead it rest­ed upon the foun­da­tion of slav­ery. Sim­i­lar­ly, West­ern democ­ra­cy has rest­ed upon the cap­i­tal­ist and impe­ri­al­ist exploita­tion. And the Amer­i­can democ­ra­cy of which Amer­i­ca has been so proud has rest­ed upon the worst kind of exploita­tion of all – class sys­tem of exploita­tion that is based upon the sys­tem­at­ic exploita­tion of anoth­er race.

Thus, democ­ra­cy has nev­er been nor was it ever meant to be, a process…by which an exploit­ed peo­ple could make a rev­o­lu­tion…

For any Black Nation­al­ist to be rev­o­lu­tion­ary today, they must be for a total change by rev­o­lu­tion­ary means of this soci­ety and the con­struc­tion of a soci­ety which elim­i­nates the exploita­tion of oth­er races, class­es and nations which are insep­a­ra­ble from cap­i­tal­ism and democ­ra­cy.46

X. Position of Revolutionary Black Internationalists

As a result of Euro­pean so-called pro­pa­gan­da (psy­cho­log­i­cal war­fare by the West) and all the con­fu­sion pre­vail­ing among the Black Under­class in var­i­ous parts of the world as to the direc­tion and objec­tives of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion, it becomes nec­es­sary for rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black inter­na­tion­al­ists to form a new con­text in which the Black Under­class can see them­selves. This means the for­ma­tion of a “NEW” uni­ver­sal rev­o­lu­tion­ary sci­ence-phi­los­o­phy, Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ism, stem­ming from the real­i­ty of the present world sit­u­a­tion and not hold­ing onto the “white rev­o­lu­tion­ary gods” of the 19th and 20th Cen­tu­ry Marx­ism-Lenin­ism. Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ism is the phi­los­o­phy of coop­er­a­tion, uni­ty of Black Nation­al­ists through­out the world to bring about a world rev­o­lu­tion in which Black cul­ture dom­i­nates and rules the plan­et. It is the phi­los­o­phy of a com­mon inter­na­tion­al cul­tur­al her­itage and iden­ti­ty among all non-Euro­pean peo­ple, i.e. African, Asian and South Amer­i­can peo­ple all have sim­i­lar if not the same cul­tur­al his­to­ries and have a com­mon des­tiny.

This rev­o­lu­tion­ary sci­ence must pro­vide guide­lines for the recon­struc­tion of the “NEW WORLD” and the devel­op­ment of a world com­mu­nal soci­ety that is con­struct­ed to flow and be in har­mo­ny with nature. Com­mu­nal­ism (Social­ism), the col­lec­tiviza­tion of econ­o­my with the decen­tral­iza­tion of social and cul­tur­al life based on the orga­ni­za­tion of com­munes will be the eco­nom­ic and cul­tur­al base of the New World. Super cities (Metrop­o­lis, like America’s super com­plex­es) being the prod­uct of cap­i­tal­ist devel­op­ment and exploita­tion, West­ern Civ­i­liza­tion will be de-empha­sized where man has become a slave or replaced by the machine.

Dialec­ti­cal human­ism – the method of ana­lyz­ing, plan­ning and devel­op­ing the soci­o­log­i­cal and cul­tur­al moti­va­tions as relat­ed to the mate­r­i­al fac­tors which affect man’s psy­che for the rais­ing of his rev­o­lu­tion­ary humane­ness towards man – is a vital part of Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ism. Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists are not only con­cerned with the influ­ence of the mate­r­i­al fac­tors effect on man, but also with the soci­o­log­i­cal and cul­tur­al aspects because as recent events have proven, the mate­r­i­al fac­tors may some­what change (eco­nom­ic sys­tem) but if the basic core, roots of the bour­geois cul­ture is not changed then the counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary ten­den­cies will reoc­cur in the peo­ple and all ves­tiges of the counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ary “revi­sion­ists” will tend to crop up again. It (Bour­geois West­ern Cul­ture) must be destroyed to the very root. When this occurs, a world rev­o­lu­tion­ary cul­ture and lan­guage can be estab­lished.

In order to ful­fill the objec­tives of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and the cre­ation of a New World, Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists must unite and coor­di­nate their pro­grams uy form­ing a Black Inter­na­tion­al. This inter­na­tion­al must lay the basis, strat­e­gy and tac­tics and orga­ni­za­tion for the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. The Black Inter­na­tion­al must be com­posed of the most ded­i­cat­ed and dis­ci­plined rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies the world has ever known, for they will have the des­tiny of the whole plan­et in their hands. The Black Inter­na­tion­al must have a sec­re­tari­at (intel­li­gentsia) that will serve as the lead­er­ship of the pro­vi­sion­al world rev­o­lu­tion­ary gov­ern­ment of the New World.

This sec­re­tari­at must form guide­lines for all Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists the world over through a “Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ist Man­i­festo.” This new man­i­festo must serve as a guide for rev­o­lu­tion­ary action in the present and forth­com­ing world sit­u­a­tion. All Black Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Inter­na­tion­al­ists could then be orga­nized into a cen­tral inter­na­tion­al rev­o­lu­tion­ary action move­ment. This move­ment in order to be suc­cess­ful would have to orga­nize a People’s Lib­er­a­tion Army on a world scale to com­plete the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion and to thor­ough­ly defeat and anni­hi­late all ves­tiges of counter-rev­o­lu­tion.

The Inter­na­tion­al Black Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Action Move­ment would orga­nize all pos­si­ble sup­port among all lev­els and ele­ments of the Black Under­class into a World Black Lib­er­a­tion Front for a final show­down with Impe­ri­al­ism, par­tic­u­lar­ly U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism. This Black Lib­er­a­tion Front, unit­ing all of the pro­gres­sive ele­ments of the Black Under­class, would be the broad orga­ni­za­tion­al form of unit­ing Africa, Asia, South and Afro-Amer­i­ca in a world people’s war against U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism.

Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists see that the present world sit­u­a­tion will cre­ate a “Dialec­ti­cal Escha­tol­ogy,” a com­ing show­down, war between the forces of good (Black Under­class), rev­o­lu­tion and the forces of evil (white over­class), counter-rev­o­lu­tion. This dialec­ti­cal escha­tol­ogy is known in more pop­u­lar terms as the War of Armaged­don. In that war, the “devil’s” forces of evil are destroyed by “God” (Allah), the forces of right­eous­ness. Dialec­ti­cal­ly speak­ing, the present world scene makes the com­ing World Black Rev­o­lu­tion into a dialec­ti­cal armaged­don or escha­tol­ogy.

Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists real­ize that their posi­tion will be attacked from “all cor­ners of the earth” by revi­sion­ists and counter-rev­o­lu­tion­ar­ies, for being every­thing but what our pro­gram is – the TRUTH. Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists stand firm in these “white days” of revi­sion­ism and Impe­ri­al­ist exploita­tion and in the words of Mao Tse-Tung, great leader and teacher of the Chi­nese peo­ple and peo­ple of the world, say, “All those who dare to uphold the truth are nev­er afraid of being in the minor­i­ty for the time being.”47

Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists call upon the Black Under­class every­where to use “any means nec­es­sary” to achieve the objec­tives of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion.

Let the cry across the plan­et be “Burn, baby, burn.” Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists call upon the Black Under­class every­where to burn the West­ern Empire to the ground (the world shall be destroyed by the fire next time). Let all rep­re­sen­ta­tion of Impe­ri­al­ism be only a mem­o­ry in a pile of ash­es. Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Black Inter­na­tion­al­ists say, “There can be no com­pro­mise with Impe­ri­al­ism and its lack­eys, the cry of the world. oppressed must be ‘LIBERATION OR DEATH.’” Let the rul­ing cir­cles of U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism and its lack­eys (Europe, Sovi­et Union, Cuba, etc.) trem­ble at the thought of the World Black Rev­o­lu­tion. The Black Under­class has noth­ing to lose but the chains that are both around their bod­ies and minds. “The world is the Black man’s Land.” The Black Under­class has a “New World” to cre­ate and as 90% of the peo­ple of the world, they say, “We will win.”

Let the inter­na­tion­al bat­tle cry be, “Broth­ers and-sis­ters of the Black Under­class in all coun­tries, UNITE to destroy the world “dev­il” (U.S. Impe­ri­al­ism and its lack­eys) now or PERISH.”

Note on the text: We have used the text of “World Black Rev­o­lu­tion” freely avail­able on the Ency­clo­pe­dia of Anti-Revi­sion­ism Online (EROL), with slight mod­i­fi­ca­tions for pub­li­ca­tion on View­point. We have kept the orig­i­nal foot­notes and for­mat­ting found in that ver­sion (though some edi­tions of the texts cit­ed might be out­dat­ed, and the cita­tion style inex­act) and have tried to pro­vide links to online mate­ri­als wher­ev­er pos­si­ble. While we have attrib­uted the author­ship to Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Action Move­ment, his­tor­i­cal evi­dence points to Muham­mad Ahmad (for­mer­ly Max Stan­ford) as the pri­ma­ry writer. Sub­stan­tial por­tions of this text were repub­lished in Muham­mad Ahmad, “Toward Pan African Lib­er­a­tion,” The Black Schol­ar 5.7 (April 1974): 24-31.

  1. W.E.B. Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk

  2. Lin Piao, Long Live The Vic­to­ry of People’s War, 53-54. 

  3. Lenin, “The Social­ist Rev­o­lu­tion and The Rights of Nations To Self Deter­mi­na­tion (The­ses),” 163-164, 166-167, 168, 170, 171, 178. “Social­ists must not only demand the uncon­di­tion­al and imme­di­ate lib­er­a­tion of the colonies with­out com­pen­sa­tion and this demand in its polit­i­cal expres­sion sig­ni­fies noth­ing else but the recog­ni­tion of the right to self-deter­mi­na­tion but they must ren­der deter­mined sup­port to the more rev­o­lu­tion­ary ele­ments in the bour­geois-demo­c­ra­t­ic move­ments for nation­al lib­er­a­tion in these coun­tries and assist their upris­ings and if need be, their rev­o­lu­tion­ary war against the impe­ri­al­ist pow­ers that oppress them,” 178. Pad­more points out in Pan-African­ism or Com­mu­nism that the oppo­site of what Lenin described hap­pened. The Social­ist (Com­mu­nists) fought against the nation­al lib­er­a­tion of the colonies. 

  4. Robert C. North, M.N. Roy’s Mis­sion to Chi­na; North, Chi­nese Com­mu­nism

  5. George Pad­more, Pan African­ism or Com­mu­nism; Wil­son Record, The Negro and the Com­mu­nist Par­ty

  6. Pad­more, Pan African­ism or Com­mu­nism; Pad­more, Fifth Pan African Con­gress; Roy, Rev­o­lu­tion and Counter Rev­o­lu­tion in Chi­na; Con­rad Brandt, Stalin’s Fail­ure in Chi­na

  7. Lin Piao, Long Live the Vic­to­ry of People’s War, 49. 

  8. Frantz Fanon, Wretched of the Earth, 32. 

  9. Note: There are approx­i­mate­ly 500 mil­lion white peo­ple liv­ing in Europe and the U.S. 

  10. Marx, Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo (Bour­geois and Pro­le­tar­i­ans) p. 34 (Gate­way Edi­tion, 1954). 

  11. Pad­more, Pan African­ism or Com­mu­nism

  12. Lenin, “The Social­ist Rev­o­lu­tion and the Right of Nations to Self-Deter­mi­na­tion (The­ses),” pp. 171, 174. 

  13. North, M.N. Roy’s Mis­sion to Chi­na; Stu­art Schram, The Polit­i­cal Thought of Mao Tse-Tung

  14. Lin Piao, Ibid., pp. 52, 53. 

  15. Ibid., p. 50; Marx, Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo (Bour­geois and Pro­le­tar­i­ans) p. 37. 

  16. Mao Tse-Tung, Select­ed Works, Vol III, p. 119 (“Some Ques­tions Con­cern­ing Meth­ods of Lead­er­ship”) Peking edi­tion, 1965. 

  17. Willie Green, “The World is the Black Man’s Land,” Soul­book Vol. 2, No. 1, Sum­mer 1966. 

  18. Marx, Col­lect­ed Works of Marx and Engels, (“On a Cri­tique of Hegel’s Juridi­cal Phi­los­o­phy, Intro­duc­tion”) Vol. I, p. 86, Ger. ed. Dietz Ver­lag, Berlin, 1958. 

  19. Marx, Com­mu­nist Man­i­festo (Social­ist and Com­mu­nist Lit­er­a­ture) p. 71. 

  20. Ibid. 

  21. Stan­ford, Cor­re­spon­dence, (Towards Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Action Move­ment), March, 1964, pp. 3 & 5. Con­tin­u­a­tion from no. 11 above:

    “Marx­ism, as Marx him­self devel­oped it, did not fore­see or pre­dict a “social­ist rev­o­lu­tion” in a back­ward agrar­i­an coun­try such as Rus­sia. Accord­ing to Marx, the rev­o­lu­tion he pre­dict­ed had to come about in a high­ly indus­tri­al­ized nation which had nec­es­sar­i­ly cre­at­ed a large, indus­tri­al class of work­ers, well orga­nized and well-trained in pro­duc­tion skills of cap­i­tal­ist indus­try.

    The Cap­i­tal­ist class of own­ers would get rich­er and more com­pact due to monop­oly growths and the work­ing class would get poor­er to the point where they would revolt and over­turn the sys­tem and expro­pri­ate the own­ers. But this did not hap­pen. Instead these work­ers began to ben­e­fit from the super exploita­tion of the “Ban­dung” world, Rus­sia being a semi-colo­nial nation with polit­i­cal auton­o­my proved to be the weak­est link in this type of exploita­tion. The very fact that world rev­o­lu­tion­ary ini­tia­tive had passed from white nations of the cap­i­tal­ist world to non-white nations of the colo­nial and semi-colo­nial world intro­duced anoth­er fac­tor in rev­o­lu­tion­ary pol­i­tics, the racial fac­tor”…Lib­er­a­tor, May 1964.

    And: “After the out­break of World War I, Lenin was con­front­ed by the fact that the West­ern Euro­pean work­ing class was not rev­o­lu­tion­ary thus did not behave in accor­dance with Marx’s pre­dic­tions as Lenin inter­pret­ed them. Since his chief con­cern was rev­o­lu­tion rather than, as with the West­ern Marx­ist (including,Marx), labor’s inex­orable rise to polit­i­cal pow­er. Lenin need­ed both to account for this phe­nom­e­non with­in a Marx­i­an frame­work and to find a new agent of rev­o­lu­tion. He did both by the the­o­ry that an influ­en­tial sec­tion of the West­ern pro­le­tari­at, a labor aris­toc­ra­cy was being bribed into ‘social chau­vin­ism’ and the defence of cap­i­tal­ism by being per­mit­ted to share with the cap­i­tal­ist, the super-prof­its derived from impe­ri­al­ist exploita­tion of the colonies. Car­ried to its log­i­cal con­clu­sion, this the­o­ry implies that all of West­ern soci­ety, includ­ing the pro­le­tari­at assumes the role of exploiter or cap­i­tal­ist, while all of the colo­nial soci­ety, includ­ing its upper class, become exploit­ed or pro­le­tar­i­ans.

    Marx’s domes­tic class strug­gle is thus replaced by inter­na­tion­al con­flict between the colo­nial pow­er and the colonies. The agent of rev­o­lu­tion in the colo­nial coun­tries is no longer the pro­le­tari­at but nation­al­ism.” John H. Kaut­sky, Polit­i­cal Change in Under­de­vel­oped Coun­tries

  22. Mal­colm X, Mes­sage to the Grass­roots Con­fer­ence,1963. 

  23. A. Muham­mad, Gar­vey­ism and the World Rev­o­lu­tion

  24. Ibid. 

  25. Mao Tse-Tung, Select­ed Works, Vol. IV, p. 416, FLP 1961, (“On The People’s Demo­c­ra­t­ic Dic­ta­tor­ship”). 

  26. A. Muham­mad, Gar­vey­ism and the World Rev­o­lu­tion

  27. Black Amer­i­ca, Sum­mer-Fall 1965, p. 19 (The African-Amer­i­can War of Nation­al Lib­er­a­tion, “On Inter­na­tion­al Sup­port”). 

  28. Harold Cruse, Black Amer­i­ca, Fall 1964, p. 10 (Roots of Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Nation­al­ism, “On Domes­tic Colo­nial­ism”). 

  29. Mal­colm X, Ibid., p. 10, (“Our Strug­gles Will Merge”). 

  30. Lin Piao, Long Live the Vic­to­ry of People’s War!, p. 46. Also see: “All reac­tionar­ies are paper tigers. In appear­ance, the reac­tionar­ies are ter­ri­fy­ing, but in real­i­ty they are not so pow­er­ful. From a long term point of view, it is not the reac­tionar­ies but the peo­ple who are real­ly pow­er­ful…” Mao Tse-Tung, Select­ed Works Vol. IV, p. 100. 

  31. Robert Williams, The Cru­sad­er, Feb. 1964, Vol. 5, No. 2 (“Rev­o­lu­tion With­out Vio­lence?”). 

  32. Ibid. 

  33. Williams, The Cru­sad­er, May-June 1964, Vol. 5, No. 4 (“The Poten­tial of a Minor­i­ty Rev­o­lu­tion Part 1”). 

  34. The Rev­o­lu­tion­ary Nation­al­ist, Vol. 1, No. 1 (“The Strat­e­gy and Tac­tics of the Black Rev­o­lu­tion,” Sec­tions 1 and 2), pp. 8-9. 

  35. Williams, The Cru­sad­er, Vol. 7, No. 1, August 1965, (“The Poten­tial of a Minor­i­ty Rev­o­lu­tion – Part 2”), pp. 5-6. 

  36. Bog­gs, “Black Pow­er: A Sci­en­tif­ic Con­cept Whose Time Has Come,” p. 7. 

  37. Williams, The Cru­sad­er, Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 7. 

  38. Max Stan­ford, Black Amer­i­ca, Fall 1964 (“We Can Win”), p. 2. 

  39. Williams, The Cru­sad­er, Vol. 5, No. 2, Feb­ru­ary 1964 (Rev­o­lu­tion With­out Vio­lence?), p. 2. 

  40. Stan­ford, Black Amer­i­ca, Fall 1964, p. 22. 

  41. Mao Tse-Tung, “State­ment Call­ing On The Peo­ple of The World To Unite To Oppose Racial Dis­crim­i­na­tion By U.S Impe­ri­al­ism & Sup­port The Amer­i­can Negroes In Their Strug­gle Against Racial Dis­crim­i­na­tion,” Aug. 8, 1963 (use Afro-Amer­i­can in place of Amer­i­can Negro). 

  42. Eli­jah Muham­mad, “Mes­sage to the Black Man (The Breakup of the Old World),” p. 266-267. 

  43. Car­los Moore, “Cuba: The Untold Sto­ry,” 64. 

  44. Ibid., 65. 

  45. Ibid., 67. 

  46. Bog­gs, Black Amer­i­ca, Fall 1964 (“Two Myths, Inte­gra­tion and Democ­ra­cy”), pp. 5-6. 

  47. Ren­min Ribao edi­to­r­i­al, “Work­ers of All Coun­tries, Unite Against Our Com­mon Ene­my,” Decem­ber 15, 1962. 

Author of the article

was an influential black revolutionary organization founded in 1962.